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Forensic firearm examination

Forensic firearm examination is the forensic process of examining the characteristics of firearms or bullets left behind at a crime scene. Specialists in this field are tasked with linking bullets to weapons and weapons to individuals. Obliterated serial numbers can be raised and recorded in an attempt to find the registered owner of the weapon. Nitric acid (HNO3) is the most common reagent used for this. Examiners can also look for fingerprints on the weapon and cartridges. Fingerprints are key pieces of evidence. If crime scene investigators find prints at a scene, they will be dusted, photographed, collected, and analyzed both by hand (using comparison microscopes) as well as compared to databases for potential

By examining unique striations, scratches left behind on the bullet and weapon, individual fired rounds can be, but not always are, linked back to a specific weapon. These striations are due to the rifling inside the barrel of handguns. Rifling spins the bullet when it is shot out of the barrel to improve accuracy.[1] Although striations are individualized evidence and will not match any other bullet or weapon, microscopic striations in the barrel of the weapon will change about every three to five shots. This is important because if attorneys wish to present ballistics evidence in court, it would be hard to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that one specific bullet would match one specific weapon. Forensic ballistics examiners may not fire more than five shots at most from a weapon found at a scene for this exact reason.[2] Known exemplars taken from a seized weapon can be directly compared to samples recovered from the scene using a comparison microscope as well as newer 3-D imaging technology. Striation images can also be uploaded to any existing national databases. Furthermore, these markings can be compared to other images in an attempt to link one weapon to multiple crime scenes. Like all forensic specialties, forensic firearm examiners are subject to being called to testify in court as expert witnesses.


The ability to compare ammunition is a direct result of the invention of rifling around the turn of the 16th century.[3] By forcing the bullet to spin as it travels down the barrel of the weapon the bullet's accuracy greatly increases. At the same time, the rifling leaves marks on the bullet that are indicative of that particular barrel. Prior to mass production of firearms, each barrel and bullet mold was hand made by gunsmiths making them unique.[4] The first successful documented case of forensic firearm examination occurred in 1835 when a member of the Bow Street Runners in London matched a recovered bullet from a murder victim to a specific mold in a suspect's home confirming that he made the bullet; this gave further evidence that the bullet maker was the perpetrator and he was convicted.[3] As manufacturing and automation replaced hand tools, the ability to compare bullets became impossible due to the standardization of molds within a specific company. However, experts in the field postulated that there were microscopic differences on each barrel left during the manufacturing process. These differences were a result of wear on the machines and since each new weapon caused a tiny amount of wear, each barrel would be slightly different from every other barrel produced by that company.[4] Also, each bullet fired from a specific barrel would be printed with the same marks, allowing investigators to identify the weapon that fired a specific bullet.[5]

One of the first uses of this knowledge was in 1915 to exonerate Charles Stielow of the murder of his neighbors. Stielow was sentenced to death and appealed to Charles S. Whitman, the Governor of New York, who was not convinced by the evidence used to convict Stielow. Whitman halted the execution until an inquiry could be conducted and after further examination it was shown that Stielow's firearm could not have fired the bullets recovered from the victims.[6] The invention of the comparison microscope by Calvin Goddard and Phillip O. Gravelle in 1925 modernized the forensic examination of firearms.[7] Simultaneous comparison of two different objects at the same time allowed to closely examine striations for matches and therefore make a more definitive statement as to whether or not they matched.

One of the first true tests of this new technology was in the aftermath of the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre in 1929. During the Prohibition Era, competing gang members were fighting over bootlegging operations within the city of Chicago. Members of the Chicago Outfit and the Egan's Rats led by Al Capone attempted to remove all competition from Chicago by eliminating the North Side Gang leader Bugs Moran.[8][9] The massacre missed Moran, who was not present, but killed seven members of the North Side Gang. The murderers attempted to cover up their crime by posing as police officers, even dressing in police uniforms.[9] Witnesses saw two "officers" leaving the scene, which implicated the Chicago police department as the perpetrators of the massacre. High levels of police corruption during that time period made it seem likely that the police department committed the killings.[9] The investigation stalled until December 1929 when Fred Burke, a member of the Egan's Rats, shot and killed a police officer in St. Joseph, Michigan. Officers searching for Burke were led to a home in nearby Stevensville. While Burke was not there, inside officers found an arsenal of weapons including two Thompson submachine guns.[9] The Chicago police department was contacted and the weapons were brought back to Chicago for testing. Goddard was asked to compare the weapons to collected evidence found at the massacre using his new "ballistic-forensics" technique. After test firing the guns, Goddard proved that the weapons were those used to kill the members of the North Side Gang, absolving the Chicago police department of all involvement.[9] The successful use of Goddard's technique resulted in the solidification of his place as the father of forensic firearm examination.[10]

Examination of the firearm[edit]

Multiple serial numbers provide redundancy and make it difficult to fully remove the numbers from a weapon.

Any firearm collected during the course of an investigation could yield viable evidence if examined. For forensic firearm examination specific evidence that can be recovered include weapon serial numbers and potentially fingerprints left on the weapon's surface.

Fingerprint recovery[edit]

Fingerprint recovery from the surface of firearms is done with cyanoacrylate (more commonly known as superglue) fuming.[11] Firearms are placed in a specially designed fume hood designed to evenly distribute fumes instead of removing them. Liquid superglue is placed in a container and heated until it is in a gaseous state. The circulating fumes adhere to the oils left behind by the fingerprint, turning the print white.[12] The resulting white print can be enhanced with fingerprint powder to increase the contrast of the white print against the weapon's finish.[11] While using the fuming technique on recovered guns is commonplace, the recovery of fingerprints from the surfaces of a firearm is challenging due to the textured grip and the general condition of recovered weapons.[11][13] If fingerprints are recovered, they can be processed through fingerprint databases such as the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS). Various parts of the recovered weapon can also be tested for touch DNA left by whomever handled it. However, the low levels of DNA that can be recovered presents numerous issues such as contamination and analysis anomalies such as allele drop-out and drop-in.[14]

Serial number recovery[edit]

Serial numbers became commonplace after the United States passed the Gun Control Act of 1968. This law mandated that all guns manufactured in or imported into the country have a serial number.[15]:1223 Prior to 1968, many firearms either did not have a serial number or the serial numbers were not unique and were reused by a manufacturer on multiple firearms.[16] If a recovered weapon has had the serial numbers altered or destroyed, examiners can attempt to recover the original numbers. The two main methods for the restoration of serial numbers are magnetic particle inspection and chemical restoration.[17] It is recommended that magnetic particle inspection be performed first due to the nondestructive nature of the method.[18] If magnetic particle inspection fails, chemical restoration is the next step in the forensic analysis.

If the serial number is successfully restored it can be used to help investigators track the weapon's history, as well as potentially determine who owns the weapon. Firearm databases such as the National Crime Information Center of the United States and INTERPOL's Firearm Reference Table can be used by investigators to track weapons that have been lost, stolen, or used previously in other crimes.[19][20]

Magnetic particle inspection[edit]

Originally developed as a method to detect flaws or irregularities in magnetic materials, magnetic particle inspection can be used on firearms to visualize the serial number underneath the obliterated area.[18] When performing this technique, examiners place the weapon in a magnetic field. The irregularities in the metal, in this case the serial number, cause the field to deform.[18] When a solution of ferrous particles is added to the weapon's magnetized surface they will be attracted to the area where the magnetic field has deformed and will build up in the area.[21] If fluorescent particles are added to the ferrous solution, ultraviolet light can be used to make it easier to visualize any recovered serial number.[21]

Chemical restoration[edit]

Chemical restoration is a type of chemical milling. Typically, chemical milling is used to slowly remove material to create a desired shape. In serial number restoration, small amounts of metal are removed until variations in the metal corresponding to the serial number are visible. This is possible because stamping the numbers distorts the grain boundary structure underneath the surface of the metal. However, chemical restoration is limited to that depth and is only successful when the obliteration of the serial number is superficial.[22] Examiners performing a restoration first sand the area where the serial number used to be. This removes any debris from the area left when the serial number was obliterated.[23] The examiner then chooses a chemical, usually an acid,[23] that will be used to slowly bring the number back to the surface. The type of chemical that is used depends on the material the weapon is made of. These acids can range from Fry's Reagent for a magnetic metal,[17] which is a mixture of hydrochloric acid, cupric chloride, and distilled water,[24] to an acidic ferric chloride solution for a non-magnetic, non-aluminum material.[17]

Examination of cartridges[edit]

Two test-fired cartridges under magnification. Matching striations can be seen.

Spent cartridges found at a scene can be examined for physical evidence such as fingerprints or compared to samples that match them to a weapon. The examination of the cartridge relies on the unique tool marks left by the various parts of the weapon including the firing pin and the ejector in semi and fully automatic firearms. These markings can be compared and matched to known exemplars fired from the same weapon using the same parts.[25]:151 The examination of the marks left on the cartridge is done using a comparison microscope. Examiners view the questioned cartridge and the known exemplar simultaneously, looking for similar microscopic marks left during the firing process.[25]:152

Example of microstamping. Insert shows a close up of the serial number imprinted into the cartridge.

Cartridges are also routinely examined for fingerprints as the act of loading the ammunition into the magazine, or chamber, leaves recoverable impressions. These fingerprints can survive the firing processes and, while a rare occurrence, fingerprints have been obtained from cartridges recovered from the scene.[26] Cartridges are subjected to cyanoacrylate fuming and examined for any usable prints. Usable prints are photographed and can be uploaded to fingerprint databases such as IAFIS for comparison with known exemplars. Cartridges can also be swabbed for trace DNA left by the individual who loaded the magazine. The extremely low levels of recoverable DNA present the same issues as swabbing a firearm for DNA.[14]

Advancements in microscopic stamping have led to a push for the inclusion of firing pin microstamping.[27]:16 The microstamp is etched onto the firing pin and is transferred to the cartridge during the firing process. Each firing pin would have a unique serial number allowing investigators to trace casings found at a crime scene to a known firearm.[27]:17 The practice is not in use as of 2020[update], although California has enacted legislation that requires microstamping on all newly sold firearms.[28] The law, and microstamping in general, has received significant opposition from gun manufacturers due to increased costs associated with introducing the microstamps into the manufacturing lines.[29]

Examination of bullets[edit]

Rifling pattern for a Remington rifle showing a clockwise (right-handed) twist.

Class characteristics[edit]

Preliminary examination of the bullet can exclude a large number of weapons by examining the general characteristics of a recovered bullet. By determining general aspects of the fired ammunition, a number of weapons can be immediately excluded as being incapable of firing that type of bullet. The make and model of the weapon can also be inferred from the combination of different class characteristics that are common to specific manufactures.[30]:32 The three main class characteristics of all bullets are the lands and grooves, the caliber of the bullet, and the rifling twist.[31] All three can be tied directly to the type of barrel that was used to fire the bullet.[31] The lands and grooves of barrel are the bumps and valleys created when the rifling is created. The caliber is the diameter of the barrel. The twist is the direction of the striations left by the barrel's rifling, clockwise (right-handed) or counterclockwise (left-handed). Most barrels will have a right-handed twist with the exception of weapons created by the Colt's Manufacturing Company which uses left-handed twists.[30]:29 Weapon barrels that match the class characteristics of recovered bullets can be examined further for individual characteristics to determine if the bullet came from that particular weapon.

Individual characteristics[edit]

In order to compare individual striations, examiners must obtain a known sample using the seized weapon. For slower-traveling bullets, such as pistols or revolvers, known bullet exemplars are created by firing the weapon into a water tank.[32] The spent bullet can be recovered, intact, as the water slows down the bullet before it can reach the tank walls. For faster traveling bullets, such as those fired from high-powered rifles and military style weapons, water tanks cannot be used as the tank will not provide enough stopping power for the projectiles.[33] To examine these weapons, investigators must fire them at a target at a controlled range with enough backing to stop the bullet and collect the spent round after it has been fired.[32]

Once a known exemplar is produced, the evidence sample can be compared to the known by examining both at the same time with a comparison microscope. Striations that line up are examined more closely, looking for multiple consecutive matches. There is no set number of consecutive matches that equates to a match declaration, and examiners are trained to use the phrase "sufficient agreement" when testifying. The degree to which an examiner can make that determination is based on their training and expertise.[25]:153 All findings by examiners are subject to questioning by both sides, prosecution and defense, during testimony in court.

Striation databasing[edit]

Bullets and casings found at a scene require a known example to compare to in order to match them to a weapon. Without a weapon, the striation pattern can be uploaded to a database such as the National Integrated Ballistic Identification Network (NIBIN) maintained by the ATF or the United Kingdom's National Ballistics Intelligence Service (NABIS). Information uploaded to these databases can be used to track gun crimes and to link crimes together.[34][35] Maintainers of these databases recommend that every recovered firearm be test fired and the resulting known exemplar be uploaded into the database.[36]


Firearm examiners have attempted to determine the shooter's position by the location of spent bullet casings. The use of ejection pattern studies were originally part of incident reconstruction and methods for determining shooter location continue to be explained in major crime scene examination books.[37] However, the validity of ejection pattern analysis has been brought into question by multiple studies that look at the reproducibility and end determination of shooter position by qualified examiners. Studies have shown that over 25% of spent casings land somewhere other than to the right and rear of the shooter.[38] This is the most commonly accepted location for where spent cartridge casings should fall, and the large percentage of casings that end up somewhere else raises concerns for the validity of the examination technique. Investigators should only present a location gained from an ejection pattern study as a tentative estimate when using the information in a courtroom setting.[38]

Prior to September 2005, comparative bullet-lead analysis was performed on bullets found at a scene that were too destroyed for striation comparison. The technique would attempt to determine the unique elemental breakdown of the bullet and compare it to seized bullets possessed by a suspect.[39] Review of the method found that the breakdown of elements found in bullets could be significantly different enough to potentially allow for two bullets from separate sources to be correlated to each other. However, there are not enough differences to definitely match a bullet from a crime scene to one taken from a suspect's possession.[40] An additional report in 2004 from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) found that the testimony given regarding comparative bullet-lead analysis was overstated and potentially "misleading under the federal rules of evidence".[39] In 2005, the Federal Bureau of Investigation indicated that they would no longer be performing this type of analysis.[41]

Further criticism came from the 2009 NAS report on the current state of various forensic fields in the United States. The report's section on firearm examination focused on the lack of defined requirements that are necessary in order to determine "matches" between known and unknown striations. The NAS stated that, "sufficient studies have not been done to understand the reliability and repeatability of the methods."[25]:154 Without defined procedures on what is and what isn't considered "sufficient agreement" the report states that forensic firearm examination contains fundamental problems that need to be addressed by the forensic community through a set of repeatable scientific studies that outline standard operating procedures that should be adopted by all firearm examiners.[25]:155 Another report issued in 2016 by the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology confirmed the NAS's findings, finding only one appropriately designed study that examined the rate of false positives and reliability amongst firearm examiners.[42]

See also[edit]


  1. ^Heard, Brian (2013). Forensic Ballistics in Court: Interpretation and Presentation of Firearms Evidence. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 33–42. ISBN .
  2. ^Heard, Brian (2013). Forensic Ballistics in Court: Interpretation and Presentation of Firearms Evidence. John Wiley & Sons. p. 41. ISBN .
  3. ^ abHamby, James (Summer 1999). "The History of Firearm and Toolmark Identification". Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Journal. 31 (3). Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  4. ^ abSteele, Lisa (2008). "Ballistics"(PDF). Science for Lawyers. American Bar Association. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  5. ^Thompson, Robert (2010). "Firearm Identification in the Forensic Science Laboratory"(PDF). National District Attorneys Association. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  6. ^Borchard, Edwin (1932). "Stielow and Green"(PDF). Convicting the Innocent: Errors of Criminal Justice. New Haven Yale University Press. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  7. ^"Comparison Microscopy". National Forensic Science Technology Center. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  8. ^O'Brien, John (February 14, 2014). "The St. Valentine's Day Massacre". The Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  9. ^ abcdeAshcroft, Brent. "St. Valentine's Day Massacre: Tale of two guns". WZZM13. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  10. ^Rasmussen, Frederick N. (February 12, 2011). "Baltimore native helped solve 1929 St. Valentine's Day Massacre". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  11. ^ abc"In the Public Eye: Finding Fingerprints on Firearms is Actually Very Rare". Forensic Magazine. September 2, 2015. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  12. ^"CYANOACRYLATE (SUPERGLUE) FUMING". Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  13. ^Gulick, Gary (May–June 2008). "Lifting Latent Fingerprints from Difficult Surfaces". Evidence Technology Magazine. 6 (3). Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  14. ^ abHorsman-Hall, Katie M. (September 2009). "Development of STR profiles from firearms and fired cartridge cases". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 3 (4): 242–250. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.02.007. PMID 19647709.
  15. ^"Public Law 90-618: To amend title 18, United States Code, to provide for better control of the interstate traffic in firearms"(PDF). October 22, 1968. pp. 1213–1236. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  16. ^"Firearms Tracing Guide". Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. November 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  17. ^ abc"Technical Procedure for Serial Number Restoration". North Carolina State Crime Laboratory. September 5, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  18. ^ abcWalker, Robert E. (2013). Cartridges and Firearm Identification. CRC Press. p. 573. ISBN .
  19. ^"INTERPOL Firearms Reference Table (IFRT)". INTERPOL. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  20. ^"NCIC Files". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  21. ^ abUtrata, Dave; Johnson, Marcus (October 2003). "Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers". Midwest Forensics Resource Center. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  22. ^"Iowa Division of Criminal Investigation Criminalistics Laboratory Firearm & Toolmark Section Restoration of Obliterated Serial Numbers". Iowa Division of Criminal Investigation. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  23. ^ ab"Serial Number Restoration". Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  24. ^"FEU08 – SOP for Serial Number Restoration of Obliterated Stampings in Various Metal Surfaces"(PDF). District of Columbia Department of Forensic Sciences. November 26, 2013. p. 2. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  25. ^ abcdeNational Research Council (2009). Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward(PDF). National Academies Press. ISBN . Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  26. ^Randerson, James (June 3, 2008). "Forensics: Fingerprints can be recovered from fired bullet casings". The Guardian. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  27. ^ abCracking the Case: The Crime-Solving Promise of Ballistic Identification(PDF) (Report). The Education Fund to Stop Gun Violence. June 2004. Archived from the original(PDF) on April 14, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  28. ^"Crime Gun Identification". Bill No. 1471 of 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  29. ^Mather, Kate (January 23, 2014). "Smith & Wesson says it won't follow California 'microstamping' law". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  30. ^ abDiMaio, Vincent J.M. (2016). Gunshot Wounds: Practical Aspects of Firearms, Ballistics, and Forensic Techniques (3rd ed.). CRC Press. p. 1. ISBN .
  31. ^ ab"Firearms & Tool Mark". North Carolina Department of Justice. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  32. ^ ab"Firearms and Toolmarks in the FBI Laboratory". Forensic Science Communications. 2 (2). April 2000. Archived from the original on September 20, 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  33. ^Fisher, Barry A.J.; Tilstone, William J.; Woytowicz, Catherine (2009). Introduction to Criminalistics: The Foundation of Forensic Science. Elsevier Academic Press. p. 39. ISBN .
  34. ^Thomas, Dylan (February 25, 2016). "A high-tech approach to tracking gun crimes". Southwest Journal. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  35. ^"Intelligence service links 350 guns to crimes". BBC News. January 11, 2010. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  36. ^"Bullets, Casings, and You". Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  37. ^Gardner, Ross (2012). Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation (2nd ed.). CRC Press. pp. 300–301. ISBN .
  38. ^ abLewinski, William; Hudson, William; Karwoski, David; Redmann, Christa (November 2010). "Fired Cartridge Case Ejection Patterns From Semi-Automatic Firearms"(PDF). Investigative Sciences Journal. 2 (3). Retrieved May 28, 2016.
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1st Evidence Remover 2.2 serial key or number

PCKent 2 : Update 

This update combines all the corrections and additions made since the very first version of PCKent 2.
It runs on "Windows XP" and following, and also on Mac with the corresponding emulators.


Instructions :

WARNING : first, do a full backup of your "PCKent2" folder!

  1. Click on the link displayed at the top of this frame to save the "PCK22M_MAJ.zip" file in your PCKent2 folder. (By default, C:\Program Files\PCKent2).
  2. Unzip it, and save the resulting "PCK22M_MAJ.exe" file in the same folder.
  3. If you are using Windows XP, simply run the "PCK22M_MAJ.exe" file.
    If you are using Windows Vista or later, you must run this program in administrator mode. To do this, right-click on it, then choose "Run as administrator".
  4. Finally, restart PCKent (in administrator mode if you're on Windows Vista or later), and wait for the update process to complete.



PCKent 2 : version 2.2.M
December 18 2018

  • Free Library - the following books have been added:
    • "Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica" : volumes 9 et 10.
    • "Systématisation Pratique de la Matière Médicale Homoeopathique" by Alphonse Teste - French.
    • "Traité Homoeopathique des Maladies Aigues et Chroniques des Enfants" by Alphonse Teste - French.
  • Remedies' Properties Editing: when a remedy's property is removed from the remedies' properties management window, or when it is converted from "Exclusive" or "Cumulative" type to "Folder" type, it is removed from the properties list of each PCKent remedy.
  • Remedies Editing: when a remedy is removed (and after confirmation), it is deleted from all the rubrics in which it is present. Its drug relationships are removed. However, it remains present in the relationships of the remedies which reference it, but in the form of plain text, and no longer in the form of a link on which you can click.
  • Optimization of the functions managing the usage history of rubrics in patient records, which prevents a slowdown of the addition or deletion of a rubric to the current portrait when there has been a very large number of modifications in the repertory.
  • Declination of PCKent in several versions: an important update of the protection system and of the management of the PCKent functionalities will soon allow to propose more or less "light" versions of PCKent, and thus, we hope, to touch a wider audience. (The unlock keys that have been given so far remain valid and still give full access to all the features of PCKent; only the new temporary keys will determine certain limits...)


  • ToolTips: Fixed the positioning of tooltips on multi-screen systems.
  • Correction of the position and size of the PCKent window on multi-monitor systems (when launching PCKent, previous position and size of the PCKent window were sometimes badly restored).
  • Remedies' properties:
    • removing any duplication of remedies properties (nep-m., pra-o., seq., trif-r., yt.);
    • removing all "Description" properties from remedies' properties list (seq., tax-d.);
    • removing the "World -> Other" property from remedies : Lith-b, Lith-br, Lith-chl, Lith-g, Lith-i, Lith-l, Lith-m, Lith-o, Lith-s, Lith-sal, Lut-o, Metho-n, Morp-ac, Morp-m, Morp-s, Mur-ac;
    • removing the "World -> Animal" property from Nepe;
    • removing the "Family -> Botanical -> Dichapetalaceae" property from Nicc-m;
    • adding the "World -> Chemical" and "Family-> Composition -> Lithium" properties to Lith;
    • removing the "Family -> Botanical -> Lichen" property from Lith-p;
    • adding the "World -> Vegetal" property to Lob;
    • adding the "World -> Vegetal" and "Family -> Botanical -> Lobeliaceae" properties to Lob-p.


PCKent 2 : version 2.2.L
June 18 2018

  • Request Module: queries on remedies are now available.
  • Request Module: queries on authors are now available.
  • Update of the Remedies Relations, which come from the 5th edition of Edouard Broussalian's Kent repertory.
  • Remedies Editing: the remedies relations editing sub-module is now available.
  • Remedies Editing: now you can do a "Shift + Right Clic" over the remedies list.


  • Remedies Module: fixed a display problem of the frames titles on the Properties tab.When the PCKent zoom was greater than 100%, the calculation of the size of these titles was not adapted, so that there was an overlap with the text below.
  • Remedies Module: using a double click to automatically resize a column of the results window, made the width of the column too short by 5 pixels.This is now fixed.
  • Request Module - Results window : it is no longer possible to reduce the size of a column to less than 50 pixels.
  • Remedies Module - Relations tab: when a remedy was removed from the remedies list, while it was present in a remedies relation, PCKent crashes when trying to display it. This is now fixed.


PCKent 2 : version 2.2.K
November 14 2017

  • Request Module: when the calculation of a query has been interrupted by pressing the Esc key, the title bar's text of the results frame is completed by the mention ("CTRL + Go button" to resume).


  • Rubrics Editing: when deleting a rubric having opposition links, a confusion between the absolute number of the referenced rubrics and their position in the repertory caused the deleted rubric to not be removed from the opposition links list of the referenced rubrics. On the other hand, the opposition links of the rubrics whose position in the repertory match the absolute number of the referenced rubrics were replaced by those of the latter. This critical issue, which occurred only in version 2.2.J, is now fixed.
  • Library: when using 2 or more screens of different resolutions, displaying the library caused PCKent to crash, either in the library module or under the "Library" tab of the remedies module. This is now fixed.


PCKent 2 : version 2.2.J
October 30 2017

  • Library: adding volume 8 of "Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica" by C. Hering - English (FREE).
  • Library: adding volume 1, 2 and 3 of "Doctrine et Traitement Homoeopathique des Maladies Chroniques" by S. Hahnemann - French (FREE)
  • Request Module: queries on repertory's rubrics are now available. Now, you can search for all the rubrics that meet many criteria (text, remedies, generalization or opposition links, properties, modifications, etc.). The results can be displayed int the Repertory module or in the Editing module.
  • Request Module: adding a button to export the results of the current query, in TXT format, either in the clipboard or in a file. The fields are separated from each other by a tab, so it is easy to reformat the data under a word processor.
  • Request Module: in the window displaying the results of the current query, the maximum display length of a field was 1500 characters. It now goes to 3000 characters per field; which may be useful, albeit insufficient, for consultation notes. The horizontal scroll bar also allows you to browse a much larger amount of data. Although the number of characters displayed in this results window is limited, this is not the case when exporting these data, which are then transferred in their entirety.
  • Rubrics Editing: adding a submodule to display the history of the selected rubric.Thus you can find all the changes made on the selected rubric.
  • Rubrics Editing: now, before deleting a rubric, PCKent performs many verifications, and asks for extra confirmation if this rubric is included in one or more patient portraits, and / or generalization links, and / or opposition links.
  • Generalization/Opposition Links: slight modification of the order of the links. PCKent first displays the links pointing in the same chapter as the selected rubric; then the links going outside the current chapter, but belonging to the same section; and finally the links pointing out of the current section. What's new is that within each of these 3 categories, the order of the links follows the order of the repertory.
  • Generalization/Opposition Links Editing: so far, when a rubric was added to the generalization / opposition links frame, it appeared at the end of the list. From now on, it is inserted in order to respect the repertory's order.
  • Generalization/Opposition Links Editing: an additional frame, located at the bottom right of the window, displays a list of rubrics that have a link to the locked rubric, but that are not referenced by this locked rubric.
  • General Index, frame displaying the patient's portrait rubrics: the right mouse button no longer allows you to drag and drop portrait rubrics.This function is now exclusively assigned to the left mouse button.Dragging the mouse from one rubric to another, with the right mouse button down, selects the above or below rubric, but no longer move it.
  • Patient's Portrait: when a patient's portrait contains a rubric that has been deleted from the repertory, it is displayed in red (in the "Consultation" tab of the patient records module; in the  patient's portrait frame of the general index module; in the repertorization grid). The rubric(s) deleted from the repertory are always displayed and taken into account in the global classifying algorithm of the grid, but not in the cross references activated during the generalization process.
  • Editing Module: in the editing module, doing a "Ctrl + Right Click" on a generalization link, on an opposition link, or on the asterisk associated to a rubric's note, allows you to switch to the corresponding editing submodule, and to point the data of the involved rubric.
  • Dictionary check: this tool now detects and corrects the sub-occurrence counter of words that are not directly present in a given rubric, but that are inherited (Occ.Book). The detection and correction of word inheritance is also improved (Occ.HeritedCnt).
  • Request Module: Improvement of the date entry fields, which now allow a partial date entry. Ex: if you perform a search like "BEFORE 2000" (without specifying the month or the day), PCKent will automatically replace "2000" by "01/01/2000". If you do a search like "AFTER 2000", PCKent will replace "2000" by "31/12/2000". The dates are also completed automatically if you indicate a month and a year, but no day (Ex: 05/2000).
  • Patient Records: the dialog box allowing to export patient records is enriched with an additional option allowing to reverse the output order of consultations (therefore exporting consultations from the oldest to the most recent).


  • History : sometimes, unnecessary history lines were generated. These lines are tracked and deleted by this update. And the problem is fixed.
  • History : correction of small history encoding bugs.
  • Correction of the General Valorization calculation, which did not take into account the 4th degree remedies.
  • Repertory : in English, when a rubric had several generalization links, they were displayed in the same order as in French. Now the links are displayed in the order of the directory corresponding to the active language.
  • Windows displaying searched rubrics (general index or editing modules): when you clicked or double-clicked below the last item of the list, the last item of the list was selected. This is no longer the case (the selected item remains the same).
  • Rubrics Editing: when you double-clicked on the separator bar located between the window displaying the list of searched rubrics, and the frame of the notes / generalization links / opposition links, the rubric placed under the mouse at the moment the button was released for the second time, or the last rubric displayed in the list of searched rubrics, became the selected rubric. This is now fixed.
  • Rubrics Editing: in the synoptic plans management pane, the "Extra" box was unduly checked for some very rare rubrics (5), even though they inherited their value from their parent rubric. This visual bug, without consequences, is now fixed.
  • Rubrics Editing: in the synoptic plan management pane, when the "Inheritance" button was unchecked, the value of the rubric was recalculated, but its display was not refreshed. This is now fixed.
  • General Index: during a search using a filter (symbol #), on very fex occasions PCKent displayed results corresponding to keywords, but without taking the filter into account. This is now corrected.
  • Requests for patient records: a search that included the "Consultation notes" field twice (for example, to determine the beginning AND end of the field) most often resulted in PCKent crashes. This problem is now solved.
  • Requests for patient records: when there was no result from a query on patient records, a click or "Ctrl + Click" or "Shift + Click" in the results window resulted in a PCKent crash. This is now fixed.
  • Checking rubrics: correction of functions involved in inserting a new blank rubric (when the rubric's level is shifted). New behaviour of PCKent when two items have the same absolute number (it no longer deletes the duplicate, but replicates the rubric).
  • Checking the dictionnary: after a dictionary correction, the size of the offsets file was not updated, which could cause a few words to appear or disappear at the end of the words list. This is now fixed.
  • Rubrics Editing: Splitting a rubric into a general rubric and a sub-rubric was malfunctioning when the text of the rubric contained a comma immediately preceded by a space. This is now fixed. In addition, the update 2.2.J removes all unnecessary spaces (at the beginning and at the end of the text, in case of multiple spaces, or when a space precedes a comma) on all PCKent rubrics, but also when creating or modifying a rubric.
  • Doing a "Ctrl + Right Click" on a generalization / opposition link, or on the asterisk of a rubric's note, did not work properly, mainly because PCKent was switching to the editing module at the time the mouse button was pressed, and once on the editing module, triggered another action when releasing the mouse button. This is now corrected by the fact that the "Ctrl + Right Click" is taken into account only when the mouse button is released.
  • Removing official remedies: when some official remedies were removed, PCKent's update program could encounter difficulties and be interrupted. This is now fixed.
  • Patient's portrait: under certain conditions, changes to the order of the portrait's rubrics were not saved (especially when a portrait's rubric was moved with the mouse, and the current folder was not "NEW Folder"). This is now fixed.
  • Patient's portrait: under certain conditions, a "Ctrl + Right Click" performed on one of the portrait's rubric, from the general index, could cause PCKent to switch to the remedies editing module, instead of the rubrics editing module. This happened when the mouse was above a remedy's abbreviation at the moment the mouse button was released and PCKent had switched to the rurbic's editing. From now on, the switch to the editing module is only triggered when the right mouse button is released (and no longer when it is pressed).
  • Request module: when a query contained a date parameter, and you switched from French to English (F11), the date was incorrectly converted and the displayed date was wrong (although the data remained valid internally). This is now fixed.
  • Module bar: when this bar was hidden, it was no longer possible to switch to another module using the keyboard shortcuts or the PCKent's menu. This is now fixed.
  • Submodule editing bar: using the PCKent menu to switch to another editing sub-module worked fine (at least when the module bar was visible), but the wrong sub-module button was down (the one corresponding to the previously visited editing sub-module). This is now fixed.
  • PCKent menu: when changing the language (F11), the items "Options -> Display -> Modules" and "Options -> Display -> Status bar" became unchecked, regardless of the visibility status of the modules bar and status bar. This is now fixed.
  • Remedies module, Library tab: the link of sul-ac and sul-i remedies to the "Fiches de Matière Médicale Homéopathique" book have been fixed.
  • Remedies module, Library tab: now, the initialization of the links between the remedies and the books in which they are described is done when PCKent is first launched. (As a result, it is no longer necessary to go to the library module and open a newly activated book, in order to access the description of the remedies it contains, from the "Library" tab of the remedies module).
  • Request Module: until now, it was possible to place one or more points in a query name (Ex:"Rqst 2.2. J"), which prevented PCKent from finding the query. It is no longer possible to place a point in a query name.
  • Correction of the following generalization links:
    • "MTH : SPEECH / difficult / enlarged tonsils" - link "Head-Heat-Partial" is replaced by "Throat-Enlargement-Tonsils".
    • "MTH : SPEECH / difficult / dryness" - link "Head-Congestion-warm-sun" is replaced by "Throat-Dryness-Speaking".
    • "XTH : CLOTHING" - Remplacement de "Head-Heat-Heart" is replaced by "Throat-Choking-Clothing".
    • "STM : RETCHING / swallowing / agg" - Remplacement de "Head-Heat-forenoon" is replaced by "Throat-Choking-Swallowing-On".
    • "STM : RETCHING / hawking" - link "Head-Heat-air-in-amel" is replaced by "Throat-Choking-Clearing".
    • "LAR : CONSTRICTION / Larynx / sleep / asleep" - link "Head-Heat-Flashes-Extending" is replaced by "Throat-Choking-Sleep".
    • "RES : ARRESTED / sleep / on going to" - link "Head-Heat-Flashes-Extending" is replaced by "Throat-Choking-Sleep".
    • "CGH : FOREIGN body, sensation as of / Larynx / awn of barly swaying" - link "Vertigo-Syncope" is replaced by "Throat-Pain-Slinter-Awns".
  • Correction of the following opposition links:
    • "N : DIPHTHERIA, in" - link "Head-Heat-Extending-Back" is replaced by "Throat-Membrane".
    • "N : DIPHTHERIA, in / begins in" - Remplacement de "Head-Cats" is replaced by "Throat-Membrane-Extending-Nose".
    • "N : DIPHTHERIA, in / Posterior nares" - link "Head-Tickling" is replaced by "Throat-Membrane-Tonsils".
    • "N : DIPHTHERIA, in / Posterior nares" - link "Head-Tickling-Forehead" is replaced by "Throat-Membrane-Fauces".
    • "N : DIPHTHERIA, in / Posterior nares" - link "Head-Hair" is replaced by "Throat-Membrane-Uvula".
    • "N : DIPHTHERIA, in / Posterior nares" - link "Head-Hair-Baldness" is replaced by "Throat-Membrane-Pharynx".
    • "N : LIQUIDS come out through the nose on attempting to swallow" - link "Head-Heat-Noon" is replaced by "Throat-Choking-Swallowing-Strangles".

PCKent 2 : version 2.2.I
June 06 2016

  • Installation and Library Keys : until now, the PCKent installation key, and the unlocking library key, were based on the Windows serial number. But this serial number changes every time Windows 10 updates, making it necessary to send new keys each time. That's why the PCKent protection system evolves and becomes independant of the Windows serial number. That way, the installation key is needed only once per workstation. And the library key needs to be recalculated only when you purchase one or many new books.
    The key to the library needed to be recalculated when a PCKent update brought new books (free or paid); this is no longer the case: only the purchase of a book requires the key to the library to be recalculated.
  • Patients Records : when a date was typed on the keyboard (consultation, accident, disease, vaccination, or birth), and the year was indicated only with 2 digits, PCKent considered that it was a date of the twentieth century (thus the 08/03/12 date was automatically converted into 08/03/1912). Now, years entered using 2 digits only will be interpreted as belonging to the twenty-first century (thus 08/03/12 automatically becomes 08/03/2012). Of course, the dates entered before the present update are not changed.
  • Library : adding volume 1 of "Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica" by C. Hering - English (FREE).
  • Library : adding "Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica" by J.T. Kent - English (FREE).
  • Library : adding "New Remedies" by J.T. Kent - English (FREE).
  • Library : adding "Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy" by J.T. Kent - English (FREE).
  • Library : adding "Lesser Writings" by J.T. Kent - English (FREE).
  • Library : adding "Clinical Cases" by J.T. Kent - English (FREE).
  • Library : adding "Aphorisms and Precepts" by J.T. Kent - English (FREE).
  • Library : adding "What the Doctor Needs to Know" by J.T. Kent - English (FREE).
  • Library : adding "Introduction to Kent's Repertory" by J.T. Kent - English (FREE).
  • Library : the French volume "Symptômes Guides de la Matière Médicale" have been completely revised: new formatting of symptoms; symbols colorization; some fixes; systematic replacement of abbreviations "g." and d." by "gauche(s)" and "droit(e)(s)" in order to facilitate researches; accented uppercases; table of contents with full names of remedies (instead of abbreviations)...
  • Rubric's Editing : the edit control allowing to search for a rubric by typing keywords now works as under the General Index: when a search is launched by pressing the Return key, the keywords are selected, and the use of the space bar does not clear this selection, but allows to add new keywords after those already present.
  • Rubric's Editing : when PCKent is in English, and the active window is the frame that allows to change the text of the selected rubric, and you press the ":" key on the keyboard, then PCKent displays the french text of the rubric. If this French text is "NOUVEAU" (the default French text for a newly created rubric), it is now automatically selected, so that you can immediately change it.
    This behavior was already functional when PCKent was in French and the English text was "NEW".


  • Patient Records : it was possible to clear the "date of consultation" field, and let it empty. In this case, the corresponding consultation was displayed as a blank line in the list of consultations, and was not necessarily detectable (especially if there was no other "visible" consultation after it). This could suggest that the consultation had disappeared. It could also generate a problem with futureimport...
    It is now no longer possible to leave the field "date of consultation"empty.
    In addition,the 2.2.I update looks for possible consultationswhich datewould be null, and automatically assigns them a dateofthe 1900 year (so that they can be easily identified). It also records theName +First Name+ Consultation N°of the correspondingconsultations inthe"Analyse.txt" file.
    Import of patient records containing consultations without date is also supported (these consultations are also being assigned a date of the year 1900, and are imported only if they have not been previously).
  • Rubric's Editing : under certain conditions, the cursor could disappear from the edit control allowing to search for a rubric by typing keywords (in fact, this happened if pressing the Return key resulted in the selection of a new rubric in the editor). This issue is now resolved.
  • The display of rubrics' paths spreading over more that 8 levels, like "XTR : PAIN / STITCHING / Upper limbs / Upper arm / Bone / Condyles / External / evening", presented a problem. This is fixed now.
  • Rubric's Editing : after a search for rubrics, some results displayed very slowly (like with "tension upper", for example). This is fixed now.


Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

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