Paragon partition manager server 11 (2011) serial key or number

Paragon partition manager server 11 (2011) serial key or number

Paragon partition manager server 11 (2011) serial key or number

Paragon partition manager server 11 (2011) serial key or number

NTFS

Developer(s)Microsoft
Full nameNT File System[1]
IntroducedJuly 1993; 27 years ago (1993-07) with Windows NT 3.1
Partition identifier (MBR)
(GPT)
Structures
Directory contentsB-tree variant[2][3]
File allocationBitmap
Bad blocks$BadClus (MFT Record)
Limits
Max. volume size264clusters − 1 cluster (format);
256 TiB − 64 KB (Windows 10 version 1703, Windows Server 2016 or earlier implementation)[4]
8 PB – 2 MB (Windows 10 version 1709, Windows Server 2019 or later implementation)[5]
Max. file size16 EiB – 1 KB (format);
16 TB – 64 KB (Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2 or earlier implementation)[4]
256 TB – 64 KB (Windows 8, Windows Server 2012 or later implementation)[6]
8 PB – 2 MiB (Windows 10 version 1709, Windows Server 2019 or later implementation)[5]
Max. number of files4,294,967,295 (232-1)[4]
Max. filename length255 UTF-16 code units[7]
Allowed characters in filenames
  • In Win32 namespace: any UTF-16 code unit (case-insensitive) except as well as NUL[7]
  • In POSIX namespace: any UTF-16 code unit (case-sensitive) except as well as NUL
Features
Dates recordedCreation, modification, POSIX change, access
Date range1 January 1601 – 28 May 60056 (File times are 64-bit numbers counting 100-nanosecond intervals (ten million per second) since 1601, which is 58,000+ years)
Date resolution100 ns
ForksYes (see § Alternate data streams (ADS) below)
AttributesRead-only, hidden, system, archive, not content indexed, off-line, temporary, compressed
File system permissionsACLs
Transparent compressionPer-file, LZ77 (Windows NT 3.51 onward)
Transparent encryptionPer-file,
DESX (Windows 2000 onward),
Triple DES (Windows XP onward),
AES (Windows XP Service Pack 1, Windows Server 2003 onward)
Data deduplicationYes (Windows Server 2012)[8]
Other
Supported operating systemsWindows NT 3.1 and later
Mac OS X 10.3 and later (read-only)
Linux kernel version 2.6 and later
Linux kernel versions 2.2-2.4 (read-only)
ReactOS (read-only)

NTFS (NT File System)[1] is a proprietaryjournaling file system developed by Microsoft.[1] Starting with Windows NT 3.1, it is the default file system of the Windows NT family.[9]

NTFS has several technical improvements over the file systems that it superseded – File Allocation Table (FAT) and High Performance File System (HPFS) – such as improved support for metadata and advanced data structures to improve performance, reliability, and disk space use. Additional extensions are a more elaborate security system based on access control lists (ACLs) and file system journaling.

NTFS is supported in other desktop and server operating systems as well. Linux and BSD have a free and open-source NTFS driver, called NTFS-3G, with both read and write functionality. macOS comes with read-only support for NTFS; its write support for NTFS is unstable, so by default file writing is disabled.

History[edit]

In the mid-1980s, Microsoft and IBM formed a joint project to create the next generation of graphical operating system; the result was OS/2 and HPFS. Because Microsoft disagreed with IBM on many important issues, they eventually separated; OS/2 remained an IBM project and Microsoft worked to develop Windows NT and NTFS.

The HPFS file system for OS/2 contained several important new features. When Microsoft created their new operating system, they "borrowed" many of these concepts for NTFS.[10] The original NTFS developers were Tom Miller, Gary Kimura, Brian Andrew, and David Goebel.[11]

Probably as a result of this common ancestry, HPFS and NTFS use the same disk partition identification type code (07). Using the same Partition ID Record Number is highly unusual, since there were dozens of unused code numbers available, and other major file systems have their own codes. For example, FAT has more than nine (one each for FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, etc.). Algorithms identifying the file system in a partition type 07 must perform additional checks to distinguish between HPFS and NTFS.

Versions[edit]

Microsoft has released five versions of NTFS:

The version number (e.g. v5.0 in Windows 2000) is based on the operating system version; it should not be confused with the NTFS version number (v3.1 since Windows XP).[15]

Although subsequent versions of Windows added new file system-related features, they did not change NTFS itself. For example, Windows Vista implemented NTFS symbolic links, Transactional NTFS, partition shrinking, and self-healing.[16] NTFS symbolic links are a new feature in the file system; all the others are new operating system features that make use of NTFS features already in place.

Features[edit]

NTFS v3.0 includes several new features over its predecessors: sparse file support, disk use quotas, reparse points, distributed link tracking, and file-level encryption called the Encrypting File System (EFS).

Scalability[edit]

NTFS is optimized for 4 KBclusters, but supports a maximum cluster size of 2 MB. (Earlier implementations support up to 64 KB)[5] The maximum NTFS volume size that the specification can support is 264 − 1 clusters, but not all implementations achieve this theoretical maximum, as discussed below.

The maximum NTFS volume size implemented in Windows XP Professional is 232 − 1 clusters, partly due to partition table limitations. For example, using 64 KB clusters, the maximum size Windows XP NTFS volume is 256 TB minus 64 KB. Using the default cluster size of 4 KB, the maximum NTFS volume size is 16 TB minus 4 KB. Both of these are vastly higher than the 128 GB limit in Windows XP SP1. Because partition tables on master boot record (MBR) disks support only partition sizes up to 2 TB, multiple GUID Partition Table (GPT or "dynamic") volumes must be combined to create a single NTFS volume larger than 2 TB. Booting from a GPT volume to a Windows environment in a Microsoft supported way requires a system with Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) and 64-bit support.[17]

The NTFS maximum theoretical limit on the size of individual files is 16 EiB (16 × 10246 or 264 bytes) minus 1 KB, which totals 18,446,744,073,709,550,592 bytes. With Windows 10 version 1709 and Windows Server 2019, the maximum implemented file size is 8 PB minus 2 MB or 9,007,199,252,643,840 bytes.[5]

Journaling[edit]

NTFS is a journaling file system and uses the NTFS Log ($LogFile) to record metadata changes to the volume. It is a feature that FAT does not provide and critical for NTFS to ensure that its complex internal data structures will remain consistent in case of system crashes or data moves performed by the defragmentation API, and allow easy rollback of uncommitted changes to these critical data structures when the volume is remounted. Notably affected structures are the volume allocation bitmap, modifications to MFT records such as moves of some variable-length attributes stored in MFT records and attribute lists, and indices for directories and security descriptors.

The ($LogFile) format has evolved through several versions:

The incompatibility of the $LogFile versions implemented by Windows 8.1 and Windows 10 prevents Windows 8 (and earlier versions of Windows) from correctly processing the $LogFile in case the NTFS volume is left in the dirty state by an abrupt shutdown or by hibernating to disk in the logoff state (a.k.a.: Hybrid Boot or Fast Boot, which is enabled by default in Windows 10). This inability to process the v2.0 of the $LogFile on dirty volumes by these earlier versions of Windows results in invocation of the CHKDSK disk repair utility when dual-booting Windows 10 with these older systems. A Windows Registry setting exists to prevent the automatic upgrade of the $LogFile to the newer version.[18][better source needed]

The USN Journal (Update Sequence Number Journal) is a system management feature that records (in $Extend\$UsnJrnl) changes to files, streams and directories on the volume, as well as their various attributes and security settings. The journal is made available for applications to track changes to the volume.[19] This journal can be enabled or disabled on non-system volumes.[20]

Hard links[edit]

The hard link feature allows different file names to directly refer to the same file contents. Hard links are similar to directory junctions, but refer to files instead. Hard links may link only to files in the same volume, because each volume has its own MFT. Hard links have their own file metadata, so a change in file size or attributes under one hard link may not update the others until they are opened.[21] Hard links were originally included to support the POSIX subsystem in Windows NT.[22]

Windows uses hard links to support short (8.3) filenames in NTFS. Operating system support is needed because there are legacy applications that can work only with 8.3 filenames. In this case, an additional filename record and directory entry is added, but both 8.3 and long file name are linked and updated together, unlike a regular hard link.

The NTFS file system has a limit of 1024 hard links on a file.[23]

Alternate data streams (ADS)[edit]

Alternate data streams allow more than one data stream to be associated with a filename (a fork), using the format "filename:streamname" (e.g., "text.txt:extrastream").

NTFS Streams were introduced in Windows NT 3.1, to enable Services for Macintosh (SFM) to store resource forks. Although current versions of Windows Server no longer include SFM, third-party Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) products (such as GroupLogic's ExtremeZ-IP) still use this feature of the file system. Very small ADS (named "Zone.Identifier") are added by Internet Explorer and recently by other browsers to mark files downloaded from external sites as possibly unsafe to run; the local shell would then require user confirmation before opening them.[24] When the user indicates that they no longer want this confirmation dialog, this ADS is deleted.

Alternate streams are not listed in Windows Explorer, and their size is not included in the file's size. When the file is copied or moved to another file system without ADS support the user is warned that alternate data streams cannot be preserved. No such warning is typically provided if the file is attached to an e-mail, or uploaded to a website. Thus, using alternate streams for critical data may cause problems. Microsoft provides a tool called Streams[25] to view streams on a selected volume. Starting with Windows PowerShell 3.0, it is possible to manage ADS natively with six cmdlets: Add-Content, Clear-Content, Get-Content, Get-Item, Remove-Item, Set-Content.[26]

Malware has used alternate data streams to hide code.[27] As a result, malware scanners and other special tools now check for alternate data streams.

File compression[edit]

NTFS can compress files using LZNT1 algorithm (a variant of LZ77)[28] Files are compressed in 16 cluster chunks. With 4 KB clusters, files are compressed in 64 KB chunks. The compression algorithms in NTFS are designed to support cluster sizes of up to 4 KB. When the cluster size is greater than 4 KB on an NTFS volume, NTFS compression is not available.[29] If the compression reduces 64 KB of data to 60 KB or less, NTFS treats the unneeded 4 KB pages like empty sparse file clusters—they are not written. This allows for reasonable random-access times as the OS just has to follow the chain of fragments.

Note: The following section refers to tests, research and recommendations done and intended for storage devices with a high Access time, such as a mechanical HDD, where the internal heads used for reading data, needs to be physically moved and positioned correctly, and then wait for the data on the rotating disks to pass beneath them. See further down for updated info regarding SSD and similar devices with low Access time.

However, large compressible files become highly fragmented since every chunk smaller than 64 KB becomes a fragment.[30][31] According to research by Microsoft's NTFS Development team, 50–60 GB is a reasonable maximum size for a compressed file on an NTFS volume with a 4 KB (default) cluster (block) size. This reasonable maximum size decreases sharply for volumes with smaller cluster sizes.[30] Single-user systems with limited hard disk space can benefit from NTFS compression for small files, from 4 KB to 64 KB or more, depending on compressibility. Files smaller than approximately 900 bytes are stored within the directory entry of the MFT.[32]

Flash memory, such as SSD drives do not have the head movement delays of hard disk drives, so fragmentation has only a smaller penalty. Users of fast multi-core processors will find improvements in application speed by compressing their applications and data as well as a reduction in space used. Note that SSDs with Sandforce controllers already compress data. However, since less data is transferred, there is a reduction in I/Os.[33]

Compression works best with files that have repetitive content, are seldom written, are usually accessed sequentially, and are not themselves compressed. Log files are an ideal example.

If system files that are needed at boot time (such as drivers, NTLDR, winload.exe, or BOOTMGR) are compressed, the system may fail to boot correctly, because decompression filters are not yet loaded.[34] Later editions of Windows[which?] do not allow important system files to be compressed.

Files may be compressed or decompressed individually (via changing the advanced attributes) for a drive, directory, or directory tree, becoming a default for the files inside.

Although read–write access to compressed files is transparent,[35] Microsoft recommends avoiding compression on server systems and/or network shares holding roaming profiles, because it puts a considerable load on the processor.[36]

CompactOS algorithms[edit]

Since Windows 10, Microsoft has introduced additional algorithms, namely XPRESS4K/8K/16K and LZX. Both algorithms are based on LZ77 with Huffman entropy coding, which LZNT1 lacked. These algorithms were taken from the Windows Imaging Format. They are mainly used for new CompactOS feature, which compresses the entire system partition using one of these algorithms.[37] They can also be manually turned on per file with the flag of the command. When used on files, CompactOS algorithm avoids fragmentation by writing compressed data in contiguously allocated chunks.

Microsoft did not change the NTFS specification to introduce these new features. It rather chose to use a reparse point on the file with tag 0x80000017 to record the fact that the file has been specially compressed, and the actual data is stored in an alternate data stream named "WofCompressedData" (for Windows Overlay Filesystem). The new design is meant purely for read-only access, so any writes to compressed files result in fully decompressing the file on Windows.[38][39]

Sparse files[edit]

A sparse file: Empty bytes don't need to be saved, thus they can be represented by metadata.

Sparse files are files interspersed with empty segments for which no actual storage space is used. To the applications, the file looks like an ordinary file with empty regions seen as regions filled with zeros.[40] A sparse file does not necessarily include sparse zeros areas; the "sparse file" attribute just means that the file is allowed to have them.

Database applications, for instance, may use sparse files.[41] As with compressed files, the actual sizes of sparse files are not taken into account when determining quota limits.[42]

Volume Shadow Copy[edit]

The Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) keeps historical versions of files and folders on NTFS volumes by copying old, newly overwritten data to shadow copy via copy-on-write technique. The user may later request an earlier version to be recovered. This also allows data backup programs to archive files currently in use by the file system. On heavily loaded systems, Microsoft recommends setting up a shadow copy volume on a separate disk.[43]

Windows Vista also introduced persistent shadow copies for use with System Restore and Previous Versions features. Persistent shadow copies, however, are deleted when an older operating system mounts that NTFS volume. This happens because the older operating system does not understand the newer format of persistent shadow copies.[44]

Transactions[edit]

As of Windows Vista, applications can use Transactional NTFS (TxF) to group multiple changes to files together into a single transaction. The transaction will guarantee that either all of the changes happen, or none of them do, and that no application outside the transaction will see the changes until they are committed.[45]

It uses similar techniques as those used for Volume Shadow Copies (i.e. copy-on-write) to ensure that overwritten data can be safely rolled back, and a CLFS log to mark the transactions that have still not been committed, or those that have been committed but still not fully applied (in case of system crash during a commit by one of the participants).

Transactional NTFS does not restrict transactions to just the local NTFS volume, but also includes other transactional data or operations in other locations such as data stored in separate volumes, the local registry, or SQL databases, or the current states of system services or remote services. These transactions are coordinated network-wide with all participants using a specific service, the DTC, to ensure that all participants will receive same commit state, and to transport the changes that have been validated by any participant (so that the others can invalidate their local caches for old data or rollback their ongoing uncommitted changes). Transactional NTFS allows, for example, the creation of network-wide consistent distributed file systems, including with their local live or offline caches.

Microsoft now advises against using TxF: "Microsoft strongly recommends developers utilize alternative means" since "TxF may not be available in future versions of Microsoft Windows".[46]

Security[edit]

In NTFS, each file or folder is assigned a security descriptor that defines its owner and contains two access control lists (ACLs). The first ACL, called discretionary access control list (DACL), defines exactly what type of interactions (e.g. reading, writing, executing or deleting) are allowed or forbidden by which user or groups of users. For example, files in the folder may be read and executed by all users but modified only by a user holding administrative privileges.[47] Windows Vista adds mandatory access control info to DACLs. DACLs are the primary focus of User Account Control in Windows Vista and later.

The second ACL, called system access control list (SACL), defines which interactions with the file or folder are to be audited and whether they should be logged when the activity is successful, failed or both. For example, auditing can be enabled on sensitive files of a company, so that its managers get to know when someone tries to delete them or make a copy of them, and whether he or she succeeds.[47]

Encryption[edit]

Encrypting File System (EFS) provides strong[48] and user-transparent encryption of any file or folder on an NTFS volume. EFS works in conjunction with the EFS service, Microsoft's CryptoAPI and the EFS File System Run-Time Library (FSRTL). EFS works by encrypting a file with a bulk symmetric key (also known as the File Encryption Key, or FEK), which is used because it takes a relatively small amount of time to encrypt and decrypt large amounts of data than if an asymmetric key cipher is used. The symmetric key that is used to encrypt the file is then encrypted with a public key that is associated with the user who encrypted the file, and this encrypted data is stored in an alternate data stream of the encrypted file. To decrypt the file, the file system uses the private key of the user to decrypt the symmetric key that is stored in the data stream. It then uses the symmetric key to decrypt the file. Because this is done at the file system level, it is transparent to the user.[49] Also, in case of a user losing access to their key, support for additional decryption keys has been built into the EFS system, so that a recovery agent can still access the files if needed. NTFS-provided encryption and NTFS-provided compression are mutually exclusive; however, NTFS can be used for one and a third-party tool for the other.

The support of EFS is not available in Basic, Home, and MediaCenter versions of Windows, and must be activated after installation of Professional, Ultimate, and Server versions of Windows or by using enterprise deployment tools within Windows domains.

Quotas[edit]

Disk quotas were introduced in NTFS v3. They allow the administrator of a computer that runs a version of Windows that supports NTFS to set a threshold of disk space that users may use. It also allows administrators to keep track of how much disk space each user is using. An administrator may specify a certain level of disk space that a user may use before they receive a warning, and then deny access to the user once they hit their upper limit of space. Disk quotas do not take into account NTFS's transparent file-compression, should this be enabled. Applications that query the amount of free space will also see the amount of free space left to the user who has a quota applied to them.

Reparse points[edit]

Introduced in NTFS v3, NTFS reparse points are used by associating a reparse tag in the user space attribute of a file or directory. Microsoft includes several default tags including symbolic links, directory junction points and volume mount points. When the Object Manager parses a file system name lookup and encounters a reparse attribute, it will reparse the name lookup, passing the user controlled reparse data to every file system filter driver that is loaded into Windows. Each filter driver examines the reparse data to see whether it is associated with that reparse point, and if that filter driver determines a match, then it intercepts the file system request and performs its special functionality.

Resizing[edit]

Starting with Windows Vista Microsoft added the built-in ability to shrink or expand a partition. However, this ability does not relocate page file fragments or files that have been marked as unmovable, so shrinking a volume will often require relocating or disabling any page file, the index of Windows Search, and any Shadow Copy used by System Restore. Various third-party tools are capable of resizing NTFS partitions.

Internals[edit]

Internally, NTFS uses B-trees to index file system data. A file system journal is used to guarantee the integrity of the file system metadata but not individual files' content. Systems using NTFS are known to have improved reliability compared to FAT file systems.[50]

NTFS allows any sequence of 16-bit values for name encoding (file names, stream names, index names, etc.) except 0x0000. This means UTF-16 code units are supported, but the file system does not check whether a sequence is valid UTF-16 (it allows any sequence of short values, not restricted to those in the Unicode standard). In Win32 namespace, any UTF-16 code units are case insensitive whereas in POSIX namespace they are case sensitive. File names are limited to 255 UTF-16 code units. Certain names are reserved in the volume root directory and cannot be used for files. These are , , , , , (dot), , , , , , and .[4] (dot) and are both directories; the others are files. The NT kernel limits full paths to 32,767 UTF-16 code units. There are some additional restrictions on code points and file names.[51]

Partition Boot Sector (VBR)[edit]

Byte offset Field length Typical value Field name Purpose
0x00 3 bytes 0xEB5290 JMP instruction Causes execution to continue after the data structures in this boot sector.
0x03 8 bytes ""
Word "NTFS" followed by four trailing spaces (0x20)
OEM ID This is the magic number that indicates this is an NTFS file system.
0x0B 2 bytes 0x0200 BPB Bytes per sector The number of bytes in a disk sector.
0x0D 1 byte 0x08 Sectors Per Cluster The number of sectors in a cluster. If the value is greater than 0x80, the amount of sectors is 2 to the power of the absolute value of considering this field to be negative.
0x0E 2 bytes 0x0000 Reserved Sectors, unused How much space is reserved by the OS at the start of disk. This is always 9.
0x10 3 bytes 0x000000 Unused This field is always 0
0x13 2 bytes 0x0000 Unused by NTFS This field is always 0
0x15 1 byte 0xF8 Media Descriptor The type of drive. 0xF8 is used to denote a hard drive (in contrast to the several sizes of floppy).
0x16 2 bytes 0x0000 Unused This field is always 0
0x18 2 bytes 0x003F Sectors Per Track The number of disk sectors in a drive track.
0x1A 2 bytes 0x00FF Number Of Heads The number of heads on the drive.
0x1C 4 bytes 0x0000003F Hidden Sectors The number of sectors preceding the partition.
0x20 4 bytes 0x00000000 Unused Not used by NTFS
0x24 4 bytes 0x00800080 EBPB Unused Not used by NTFS
0x28 8 bytes 0x00000000007FF54A Total sectors The partition size in sectors.
0x30 8 bytes 0x0000000000000004 $MFT cluster number The cluster that contains the Master File Table
0x38 8 bytes 0x000000000007FF54 $MFTMirr cluster number The cluster that contains a backup of the Master File Table
0x40 1 byte 0xF6 Bytes or Clusters Per File Record Segment A positive value denotes the number of clusters in a File Record Segment. A negative value denotes the amount of bytes in a File Record Segment, in which case the size is 2 to the power of the absolute value. (0xF6 = -10 → 210 = 1024).
0x41 3 bytes 0x000000 Unused This field is not used by NTFS
0x44 1 byte 0x01 Bytes or Clusters Per Index Buffer A positive value denotes the number of clusters in an Index Buffer. A negative value denotes the amount of bytes and it uses the same algorithm for negative numbers as the "Bytes or Clusters Per File Record Segment."
0x45 3 bytes 0x000000 Unused This field is not used by NTFS
0x48 8 bytes 0x1C741BC9741BA514 Volume Serial Number A unique random number assigned to this partition, to keep things organized.
0x50 4 bytes 0x00000000 Checksum, unused Supposedly a checksum.
0x54 426 bytes Bootstrap Code The code that loads the rest of the operating system. This is pointed to by the first 3 bytes of this sector.
0x01FE 2 bytes 0xAA55 End-of-sector Marker This flag indicates that this is a valid boot sector.

This boot partition format is roughly based upon the earlier FAT filesystem, but the fields are in different locations. Some of these fields, especially the "sectors per track", "number of heads" and "hidden sectors" fields may contain dummy values on drives where they either do not make sense or are not determinable.

The OS first looks at the 8 bytes at 0x30 to find the cluster number of the $MFT, then multiplies that number by the number of sectors per cluster (1 byte found at 0x0D). This value is the sector offset (LBA) to the $MFT, which is described below.

Master File Table[edit]

In NTFS, all file, directory and metafile data—file name, creation date, access permissions (by the use of access control lists), and size—are stored as metadata in the Master File Table (MFT). This abstract approach allowed easy addition of file system features during Windows NT's development—an example is the addition of fields for indexing used by the Active Directory software. This also enables fast file search software to locate named local files and folders included in the MFT very quickly, without requiring any other index.

The MFT structure supports algorithms which minimize disk fragmentation.[54] A directory entry consists of a filename and a "file ID" (analogous to the inode number), which is the record number representing the file in the Master File Table. The file ID also contains a reuse count to detect stale references. While this strongly resembles the W_FID of Files-11, other NTFS structures radically differ.

Two copies of the MFT are stored in case of corruption. If the first record is corrupted, NTFS reads the second record to find the MFT mirror file. Locations for both files are stored in the boot sector.[55]

Metafiles[edit]

NTFS contains several files that define and organize the file system. In all respects, most of these files are structured like any other user file ($Volume being the most peculiar), but are not of direct interest to file system clients.[56] These metafiles define files, back up critical file system data, buffer file system changes, manage free space allocation, satisfy BIOS expectations, track bad allocation units, and store security and disk space usage information. All content is in an unnamed data stream, unless otherwise indicated.

Segment number File name Purpose
0 Describes all files on the volume, including file names, timestamps, stream names, and lists of cluster numbers where data streams reside, indexes, security identifiers, and file attributes like "read only", "compressed", "encrypted", etc.
1 Duplicate of the first vital entries of $MFT, usually 4 entries (4 kilobytes).
2 Contains transaction log of file system metadata changes.
3 Contains information about the volume, namely the volume object identifier, volume label, file system version, and volume flags (mounted, chkdsk requested, requested $LogFile resize, mounted on NT 4, volume serial number updating, structure upgrade request). This data is not stored in a data stream, but in special MFT attributes: If present, a volume object ID is stored in an $OBJECT_ID record; the volume label is stored in a $VOLUME_NAME record, and the remaining volume data is in a $VOLUME_INFORMATION record. Note: volume serial number is stored in file $Boot (below).
4 A table of MFT attributes that associates numeric identifiers with names.
5 Root directory. Directory data is stored in $INDEX_ROOT and $INDEX_ALLOCATION attributes both named $I30.
6 An array of bit entries: each bit indicates whether its corresponding cluster is used (allocated) or free (available for allocation).
7 Volume boot record (VBR). This file is always located at the first clusters on the volume. It contains bootstrap code (see NTLDR/BOOTMGR) and a BIOS parameter block including a volume serial number and cluster numbers of $MFT and $MFTMirr.
8 A file that contains all the clusters marked as having bad sectors. This file simplifies cluster management by the chkdsk utility, both as a place to put newly discovered bad sectors, and for identifying unreferenced clusters. This file contains two data streams, even on volumes with no bad sectors: an unnamed stream contains bad sectors—it is zero length for perfect volumes; the second stream is named $Bad and contains all clusters on the volume not in the first stream.
9 Access control list database that reduces overhead having many identical ACLs stored with each file, by uniquely storing these ACLs only in this database (contains two indices: $SII (Standard_Information ID) and $SDH (Security Descriptor Hash), which index the stream named $SDS containing actual ACL table).[13]
10 A table of unicode uppercase characters for ensuring case-insensitivity in Win32 and DOS namespaces.
11 A file system directory containing various optional extensions, such as $Quota, $ObjId, $Reparse or $UsnJrnl.
12–23 Reserved for $MFT extension entries. Extension entries are additional MFT records that contain additional attributes that do not fit in the primary record. This could occur if the file is sufficiently fragmented, has many streams, long filenames, complex security, or other rare situations.
24 Holds disk quota information. Contains two index roots, named $O and $Q.
25 Holds link tracking information. Contains an index root and allocation named $O.
26 Holds reparse point data (such as symbolic links). Contains an index root and allocation named $R.
27– Beginning of regular file entries.

These metafiles are treated specially by Windows, handled directly by the driver and are difficult to directly view: special purpose-built tools are needed.[57] As of Windows 7, the NTFS driver completely prohibits user access, resulting in a BSoD whenever an attempt to execute a metadata file is made. One such tool is the nfi.exe ("NTFS File Sector Information Utility") that is freely distributed as part of the Microsoft "OEM Support Tools". For example, to obtain information on the "$MFT"-Master File Table Segment the following command is used: [58] Another way to bypass the restriction is to use 7-Zip's file manager and go to the low-level NTFS path (where resembles any drive/partition). Here, 3 new folders will appear: , (a pseudo-folder that 7-Zip uses to attach files deleted from the file system to view), and (another pseudo-folder that contains all the NTFS metadata files). This trick can be used from removable devices (USB flash drives, external hard drives, SD Cards, etc.) inside Windows, but doing this on the active partition requires offline access (namely WinRE).

Attribute lists, attributes, and streams[edit]

For each file (or directory) described in the MFT record, there is a linear repository of stream descriptors (also named attributes), packed together in one or more MFT records (containing the so-called attributes list), with extra padding to fill the fixed 1 KB size of every MFT record, and that fully describes the effective streams associated with that file.

Each attribute has an attribute type (a fixed-size integer mapping to an attribute definition in file $AttrDef), an optional attribute name (for example, used as the name for an alternate data stream), and a value, represented in a sequence of bytes. For NTFS, the standard data of files, the alternate data streams, or the index data for directories are stored as attributes.

According to $AttrDef, some attributes can be either resident or non-resident. The $DATA attribute, which contains file data, is such an example. When the attribute is resident (which is represented by a flag), its value is stored directly in the MFT record. Otherwise, clusters are allocated for the data, and the cluster location information is stored as data runs in the attribute.

  • For each file in the MFT, the attributes identified by attribute type, attribute name must be unique. Additionally, NTFS has some ordering constraints for these attributes.
  • There is a predefined null attribute type, used to indicate the end of the list of attributes in one MFT record. It must be present as the last attribute in the record (all other storage space available after it will be ignored and just consists of padding bytes to match the record size in the MFT).
  • Some attribute types are required and must be present in each MFT record, except unused records that are just indicated by null attribute types.
    • This is the case for the $STANDARD_INFORMATION attribute that is stored as a fixed-size record and contains the timestamps and other basic single-bit attributes (compatible with those managed by FAT in DOS or Windows 9x).
  • Some attribute types cannot have a name and must remain anonymous.
    • This is the case for the standard attributes, or for the preferred NTFS "filename" attribute type, or the "short filename" attribute type, when it is also present (for compatibility with DOS-like applications, see below). It is also possible for a file to contain only a short filename, in which case it will be the preferred one, as listed in the Windows Explorer.
    • The filename attributes stored in the attribute list do not make the file immediately accessible through the hierarchical file system. In fact, all the filenames must be indexed separately in at least one other directory on the same volume. There it must have its own MFT record and its own security descriptors and attributes that reference the MFT record number for this file. This allows the same file or directory to be "hardlinked" several times from several containers on the same volume, possibly with distinct filenames.
  • The default data stream of a regular file is a stream of type $DATA but with an anonymous name, and the ADSs are similar but must be named.
  • On the other hand, the default data stream of directories has a distinct type, but are not anonymous: they have an attribute name ("$I30" in NTFS 3+) that reflects its indexing format.

All attributes of a given file may be displayed by using the nfi.exe ("NTFS File Sector Information Utility") that is freely distributed as part of the Microsoft "OEM Support Tools".[58]

Windows system calls may handle alternate data streams.[4] Depending on the operating system, utility and remote file system, a file transfer might silently strip data streams.[4] A safe way of copying or moving files is to use the BackupRead and BackupWrite system calls, which allow programs to enumerate streams, to verify whether each stream should be written to the destination volume and to knowingly skip unwanted streams.[4]

Resident vs. non-resident attributes[edit]

To optimize the storage and reduce the I/O overhead for the very common case of attributes with very small associated value, NTFS prefers to place the value within the attribute itself (if the size of the attribute does not then exceed the maximum size of an MFT record), instead of using the MFT record space to list clusters containing the data; in that case, the attribute will not store the data directly but will just store an allocation map (in the form of data runs) pointing to the actual data stored elsewhere on the volume.[59] When the value can be accessed directly from within the attribute, it is called "resident data" (by computer forensics workers). The amount of data that fits is highly dependent on the file's characteristics, but 700 to 800 bytes is common in single-stream files with non-lengthy filenames and no ACLs.

  • Some attributes (such as the preferred filename, the basic file attributes) cannot be made non-resident. For non-resident attributes, their allocation map must fit within MFT records.
  • Encrypted-by-NTFS, sparse data streams, or compressed data streams cannot be made resident.
  • The format of the allocation map for non-resident attributes depends on its capability of supporting sparse data storage. In the current implementation of NTFS, once a non-resident data stream has been marked and converted as sparse, it cannot be changed back to non-sparse data, so it cannot become resident again, unless this data is fully truncated, discarding the sparse allocation map completely.
  • When a non-resident attribute is so fragmented, that its effective allocation map cannot fit entirely within one MFT record, NTFS stores the attribute in multiple records. The first one among them is called the base record, while the others are called extension records. NTFS creates a special attribute $ATTRIBUTE_LIST to store information mapping different parts of the long attribute to the MFT records, which means the allocation map may be split into multiple records. The $ATTRIBUTE_LIST itself can also be non-resident, but its own allocation map must fit within one MFT record.
  • When there are too many attributes for a file (including ADS's, extended attributes, or security descriptors), so that they cannot fit all within the MFT record, extension records may also be used to store the other attributes, using the same format as the one used in the base MFT record, but without the space constraints of one MFT record.

The allocation map is stored in a form of data runs with compressed encoding. Each data run represents a contiguous group of clusters that store the attribute value. For files on a multi-GB volume, each entry can be encoded as 5 to 7 bytes, which means a 1 KB MFT record can store about 100 such data runs. However, as the $ATTRIBUTE_LIST also has a size limit, it is dangerous to have more than 1 million fragments of a single file on an NTFS volume, which also implies that it is in general not a good idea to use NTFS compression on a file larger than 10 GB.[60]

The NTFS file system driver will sometimes attempt to relocate the data of some of the attributes that can be made non-resident into the clusters, and will also attempt to relocate the data stored in clusters back to the attribute inside the MFT record, based on priority and preferred ordering rules, and size constraints.

Since resident files do not directly occupy clusters ("allocation units"), it is possible for an NTFS volume to contain more files on a volume than there are clusters. For example, a 74.5 GB partition NTFS formats with 19,543,064 clusters of 4 KB. Subtracting system files (a 64 MB log file, a 2,442,888-byte Bitmap file, and about 25 clusters of fixed overhead) leaves 19,526,158 clusters free for files and indices. Since there are four MFT records per cluster, this volume theoretically could hold almost 4 × 19,526,158= 78,104,632 resident files.

Opportunistic locks[edit]

Opportunistic file locks (oplocks) allow clients to alter their buffering strategy for a given file or stream in order to increase performance and reduce network use.[61] Oplocks apply to the given open stream of a file and do not affect oplocks on a different stream.

Oplocks can be used to transparently access files in the background. A network client may avoid writing information into a file on a remote server if no other process is accessing the data, or it may buffer read-ahead data if no other process is writing data.

Windows supports four different types of oplocks:

  • Level 2 (or shared) oplock: multiple readers, no writers (i.e. read caching).
  • Level 1 (or exclusive) oplock: exclusive access with arbitrary buffering (i.e. read and write caching).
  • Batch oplock (also exclusive): a stream is opened on the server, but closed on the client machine (i.e. read, write and handle caching).
  • Filter oplock (also exclusive): applications and file system filters can "back out" when others try to access the same stream (i.e. read and write caching) (since Windows 2000)

Opportunistic locks have been enhanced in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 with per-client oplock keys.[62]

Time[edit]

Windows NT and its descendants keep internal timestamps as UTC and make the appropriate conversions for display purposes; all NTFS timestamps are in UTC.[citation needed]

For historical reasons, the versions of Windows that do not support NTFS all keep time internally as local zone time, and therefore so do all file systems – other than NTFS – that are supported by current versions of Windows. This means that when files are copied or moved between NTFS and non-NTFS partitions, the OS needs to convert timestamps on the fly. But if some files are moved when daylight saving time (DST) is in effect, and other files are moved when standard time is in effect, there can be some ambiguities in the conversions. As a result, especially shortly after one of the days on which local zone time changes, users may observe that some files have timestamps that are incorrect by one hour. Due to the differences in implementation of DST in different jurisdictions, this can result in a potential timestamp error of up to 4 hours in any given 12 months.[63]

Interoperability[edit]

While the different NTFS versions are for the most part fully forward- and backward-compatible, there are technical considerations for mounting newer NTFS volumes in older versions of Microsoft Windows. This affects dual-booting, and external portable hard drives. For example, attempting to use an NTFS partition with "Previous Versions" (a.k.a. Volume Shadow Copy) on an operating system that does not support it will result in the contents of those previous versions being lost.[64] A Windows command-line utility called convert.exe can convert supporting file systems to NTFS, including HPFS (only on Windows NT 3.1, 3.5, and 3.51), FAT16 and FAT32 (on Windows 2000 and later).[65][66]

As of Windows 10 version 1709, known as the Fall Creators Update, Microsoft requires the OneDrive file structure to reside on an NTFS disk. This is because the reparse tag on every file and directory within the local OneDrive file structure is set in a recursive manner, thus making the file or folder unusable with any previous version of Windows, with any other NTFS file system driver, or any file system and backup utilities not updated to support it. It is unknown whether recursive linking is a feature of the NTFS file system or an undocumented workaround by Microsoft to support OneDrive's new "Files On-Demand" feature.

Implementations[edit]

FreeBSD 3.2 released in May 1999 included read-only NTFS support written by Semen Ustimenko.[67][68] This implementation was ported to NetBSD by Christos Zoulas and Jaromir Dolecek and released with NetBSD 1.5 in December 2000.[69] The FreeBSD implementation of NTFS was also ported to OpenBSD by Julien Bordet and offers native read-only NTFS support by default on i386 and amd64 platforms as of version 4.9 released 1 May 2011.[70][68]

Linux kernel versions 2.2.0 and later include the ability to read NTFS partitions; kernel versions 2.6.0 and later contain a driver written by Anton Altaparmakov (University of Cambridge

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
, Paragon partition manager server 11 (2011) serial key or number

Hiren’s BootCD 10.6

Hiren’s BootCD 10.6

FilenameHirens.BootCD.10.6.zip
Filesize269.99 MB (283100236 bytes)
ISO MD5EE6D5EB41802833062F2E3CF2491FBB0
ZIP MD5920A321C07298CB25B6B9B292205E8BA

Antivirus Tools

  • ComboFix (2606): Designed to cleanup malware infections and restore settings modified by malware (Windows Freeware).
  • CWShredder 2.19: Popular CoolWebSearch Trojan Remover tool (Windows Freeware).
  • Dr.Web CureIt! Antivirus (2606): A free standalone anti-virus and anti-spyware on-demand scanner (Windows Freeware).
  • GMER 1.0.15: Hidden services, hidden registry, hidden file scanner, Rootkit Detector and Remover (Windows Freeware).
  • Malwarebytes’ Anti-Malware 1.46 (2606): Anti-malware application that can thoroughly remove even the most advanced malware. (Windows Freeware).
  • RootkitRevealer 1.7.1: Rootkit Revealer is an advanced patent-pending root kit detection utility. (Windows Freeware).
  • SmitFraudFix 2.424: This removes Some of the popular Desktop Hijack malware (Windows Freeware).
  • Spybot Search & Destroy 1.6.2 (2606): Application to scan for spyware, adware, hijackers and other malicious software. (Windows Freeware).
  • SpywareBlaster 4.3 (2606): Prevent the installation of spyware and other potentially unwanted software. (Windows Freeware).
  • SuperAntispyware 4.39.1002 (2606): Remove Malware, Rootkits, Spyware, Adware, Worms, Parasites (a must have tool) (Windows Freeware).

Archivers

  • 7-Zip 9.15b: File archiver with a high compression ratio Supports 7z, ARJ, BZIP2, CAB, CHM, CPIO, DEB, DMG, FAT, GZ, GZIP, HFS, IMA, IMG, ISO, LZH, LZMA, MBR, MSI, NSIS, NTFS, RAR, RPM, TAR, UDF, VHD, WIM, XAR, XZ, ZIP and Z formats (Windows Freeware).
  • EasyUHA 1.0: GUI Tool to create and extract UHA Archives (Windows Freeware).

Backup Tools

  • Acronis True Image 8.1.945: Create an exact disk image for complete system backup and disk cloning. (Dos Commercial).
  • COPYR.DMA Build013: A Tool for making copies of hard disks with bad sectors (Dos Freeware).
  • Double Driver 3.0: Driver Backup and Restore tool (Windows Freeware).
  • Drive SnapShot 1.40: Creates an exact Disk Image of your system into a file while windows is running. (Windows Shareware).
  • DriveImageXML 2.14: Backup any drive/partition to an image file, even if the drive is currently in use (Windows Freeware).
  • DriverBackup! 1.0.3: Another handy tool to backup drivers (Windows Freeware).
  • FastCopy 2.01: The Fastest Copy/Delete Software on Windows (Windows Freeware).
  • G4L Ghost 4 Linux 0.33a: A hard disk and partition imaging and cloning tool similar to Norton Ghost (Linux Freeware).
  • GImageX 2.0.17: ImageX is used to backup/restore WIM images for Windows XP/Vista and Windows 7 (Windows Freeware).
  • InfraRecorder 0.50: An Open source CD/DVD burning software, also create/burn .iso images (Windows Freeware).
  • Norton Ghost 11.5.1: A hard drive disk imaging utility for Windows which supports Network/USB/SCSI (Windows/Dos Commercial).
  • Partition Image: PartImage 0.6.9: Supported filesystem includes Ext2, Ext3, Reiserfs, HFS, HPFS, JFS, Xfs, UFS, Fat16, Fat32 and NTFS. (Linux Freeware).
  • Partition Saving 3.80: A tool to backup/restore partitions. (SavePart.exe) (Windows/Dos Freeware).
  • RegBak 1.0: A light-weight and simple utility to create backups of Windows registry files (Windows Freeware).
  • SelfImage 1.2.1.92: To create image files of any mounted or unmounted hard disk partition. (Windows Freeware).
  • Smart Driver Backup 2.12: Easy backup of your Windows device drivers (also works from PE) (Windows Freeware).
  • WhitSoft File Splitter 4.5a: A Small File Split-Join Tool (Windows Freeware).

BIOS / CMOS Tools

  • !BIOS 3.20: A powerfull utility for bios and cmos (Dos Freeware).
  • Award DMI Configuration Utility 2.43: DMI Configuration utility for modifying/viewing the MIDF contents. (Dos Freeware).
  • BIOS Cracker 5.0: BIOS password remover (cmospwd) (Dos Freeware).
  • BIOS Utility 1.35.0: BIOS Informations, password, beep codes and more. (Dos Freeware).
  • CMOS 0.93: CMOS Save / Restore Tool (Dos Freeware).
  • DISKMAN4: A powerful all in one utility (Windows/Dos Freeware).
  • Kill CMOS: A tiny utility to wipe cmos (Dos Freeware).
  • UniFlash 1.40: Bios flash utility (Dos Freeware).

Browsers / File Managers

  • 7-Zip File Manager: 7-Zip is a popular open source file archiver designed for Microsoft Windows (Windows Freeware).
  • Dos Command Center 5.1: Classic dos-based file manager. (Dos Freeware).
  • Dos Navigator 6.4.0: Dos File Manager, Norton Commander clone but has much more features. (Dos Freeware).
  • Explore2fs 1.08b: GUI explorer tool for accessing linux ext2 and ext3 filesystems under windows (Windows Freeware).
  • FastLynx 2.0: Dos file manager with Pc to Pc file transfer capability (Dos Freeware).
  • File Maven 3.5: An advanced Dos file manager with high speed PC-to-PC file transfers via serial or parallel cable (Dos Freeware).
  • File Wizard 1.35: A file manager – Colored files, drag and drop copy, move, delete etc. (Dos Freeware).
  • Mini Windows 98: Can run from Ram Drive, with ntfs support, 7-Zip, Disk Defragmenter, Notepad / RichText Editor, Image Viewer, .avi .mpg .divx .xvid Movie Player, etc… (Windows Commercial).
  • Mini Windows Xp: Portable Windows Xp that runs from CD/USB/Ram Drive, with Network and SATA support (Windows Commercial).
  • Opera Web Browser 9.27: One of the fastest, smallest and smartest full-featured web browser (Windows Freeware).
  • Total Commander 7.55: A file manager similar to the Windows Explorer features side-by-side file-browsing panes, built-in FTP, archive management, file search/compare/synchronize and more. (Windows Shareware).
  • Volkov Commander 4.99: Dos File Manager with LongFileName/ntfs support (Similar to Norton Commander) (Dos Freeware).

Cleaners

  • CCleaner 2.33.1184: Crap Cleaner is a freeware system optimization and privacy tool (Windows Freeware).
  • CleanUp! 4.5.2: Removes junk files from all user profiles that accumulate over time and litter your hard drive (Windows Freeware).
  • Data Shredder 1.0: A tool to Erase disk and files (also wipe free space) securely (Windows Freeware).
  • Delete Doctor 2.2: Delete Files that are hard to delete, Option to delete on reboot or via UNC Name (Windows Freeware).
  • MyUninstaller 1.65: Alternative to the standard add / remove control panel module (Windows Freeware).
  • SpaceMonger 1.4: Keeping track of the free space on your computer (Windows Freeware).
  • WinDirStat 1.1.2.80: A disk usage statistics viewer and cleanup tool for Windows. (Windows Freeware).

Editors / Viewers

  • HxD 1.7.7.0: Hex Editor provides tools to inspect and edit files, main memory, disks/disk images (Windows Freeware).
  • IrfanView 4.27: A free Image Viewer/Editor/Converter and Optimizer (Windows Freeware).
  • SumatraPDF 1.1: A free, open source, lightweight PDF Reader for Microsoft Windows (Windows Freeware).

FileSystems Tools

  • AlternateStreamView 1.12: View/Copy/Delete hidden NTFS Alternate Data Streams (Windows Freeware).
  • EditBINI 1.01: To Edit boot.ini on NTFS Partition (Dos Freeware).
  • FileDisk Mount Tool 25: To mount ISO/BIN/NRG/MDF/IMA images on windows. (Windows Freeware).
  • NewSID 4.10: Utility that changes the security ID (SID) for Windows NT, 2000 and XP (Windows Freeware).
  • NTFS Access 2.1: Set NTFS permissions recursively and full access rights to a folder/file owner (Windows Freeware).
  • NTFS Dos 3.02: To access ntfs partitions from Dos (Dos Freeware).
  • NTFS Dos Pro 5.0: To access ntfs partitions from Dos (Dos Commercial).
  • NTFS4Dos 1.9: To access ntfs partitions from Dos (Dos Freeware).
  • Paragon Mount Everything 3.0: To access NTFS, Ext2FS, Ext3FS partitions from dos (Dos Commercial).
  • Virtual Floppy Drive 2.1: Enables you to create and mount a virtual floppy drive on your NT/2000/XP/Vista (Windows Freeware).

Hard Disk Tools

  • Active Kill Disk 4.1.2393: Securely overwrites and destroys all data on physical drive. (Dos Freeware).
  • Darik’s Boot and Nuke (DBAN) 1.0.7: Completely deletes the contents of any hard disk it can detect (Linux Freeware).
  • ExcelStor’s ESTest 4.50: ExcelStor hard disk diagnostic utility (Dos Freeware).
  • Fujitsu HDD Diagnostic Tool 7.00: To check IDE drives for possible defects/problems (Dos Freeware).
  • Fujitsu IDE Low Level Format 1.0: Low Level Format Tool (Dos Freeware).
  • Gateway GwScan 5.12: Gateway hard drive diagnostic utility (Dos Freeware).
  • Hard Disk Sentinel 1.00.5: Hard Disk health, performance and temperature monitoring tool. (Dos Freeware).
  • HDAT2 4.53: Main function is testing and repair (regenerates) bad sectors for detected devices (Dos Freeware).
  • HDD Erase 4.0: Secure erase using a special feature built into most newer hard drives (Dos Freeware).
  • HDD Regenerator 1.71: to recover a bad hard drive (Dos Commercial).
  • IBM Hitachi Drive Fitness Test 4.16: Quickly and reliably tests SCSI, IDE and SATA drives (Dos Freeware).
  • IBM Hitachi Feature Tool 2.15: Allows you to control some of the features of the the HDD (Dos Freeware).
  • Maxtor amset utility 4.0: Utility for changing Acoustic Management on the hard drives (Dos Freeware).
  • Maxtor Low Level Formatter 1.1: Maxtor’s Low Level Format Utility works on any harddrive (Dos Freeware).
  • Maxtor PowerMax 4.23: Designed to perform diagnostic read/write verifications on Maxtor/Quantum hard drives (Dos Freeware).
  • MHDD 4.6: Precise diagnostic of the mechanical part of a drive, perform Low-level format, Bad Sector Sepair, access raw sectors, manage S.M.A.R.T. (SMART) and other drive parameters such as acoustic management, security, Host Protected Area, etc. (Dos Freeware).
  • Samsung Disk Diagnose (SHDIAG) 1.28: To diagnose the disk when suspected to have failures (Dos Freeware).
  • Samsung ESTOOL 3.00g: Drive Diagnostic, Automatic Acoustic Management, Enable/Disable SMART etc (Dos Freeware).
  • Samsung HDD Utility(HUTIL) 2.10: The Drive Diagnostic Utility (Dos Freeware).
  • SeaTools for Dos: GUI 2.20 Text 1.10 versions to test Seagate or Maxtor Parallel ATA (PATA and IDE) and Serial ATA (SATA) interface disc drives (Dos Freeware).
  • SmartUDM 2.00: Hard Disk Drive S.M.A.R.T. Viewer. (Dos Freeware).
  • Toshiba Hard Disk Diagnostic 2.00b: Toshiba hard drive diagnostic utility (Dos Freeware).
  • Victoria 3.33e and 3.52rus: A freeware program for low-level HDD diagnostics (Dos Freeware).
  • ViVard 1.0: HDD low-level diagnostics, Surface test with remap, SMART-attributes etc. (Dos Freeware).
  • WDClear 1.30: Restore/Erases the drive back to a factory condition (Dos Freeware).
  • Western Digital Data Lifeguard Tools 11.2: For the installation of Western Digital EIDE Hard Drives (Dos Freeware).
  • Western Digital Diagnostics (DLGDIAG) 5.04f: To quickly and efficiently verify the status of the drive (Dos Freeware).

MBR (Master Boot Record) Tools

  • Boot Partition 2.60: Add Partition in the Windows NT/2000/XP Multi-boot loader (Dos Freeware).
  • BootFix Utility: Run this utility if you get ‘Invalid system disk’ (Dos Freeware).
  • BootICE 0.78: A boot sector manipulation utility (Windows Freeware).
  • BootSect 6.0.6: Boot Sector Manipulation Tool, This tool replaces FixFAT.exe and FixNTFS.exe (Windows Freeware).
  • DiskMan 4.2: All in one tool for cmos, bios, bootrecord and more (Windows/Dos Freeware).
  • Grub4Dos installer 1.1: An universal boot loader GRUB for DOS installer (Windows Freeware).
  • HDHacker 1.4: Load/Save/View MBR and BootSector from a physical/logical drive (Windows Freeware).
  • MBR SAVE / RESTORE 2.1: BootSave and BootRest tools to save / restore MBR (Dos Freeware).
  • MBR Utility 1.05: To manipulate a drive’s master boot record (MBR) via the command line (Windows/Dos Freeware).
  • MbrFix 1.3: To backup, restore, fix the boot code in the MBR (Windows/Dos Freeware).
  • MBRTool 2.3.200: Backup, verify, restore, edit, refresh, remove, display, re-write… (Dos Freeware).
  • MBRWizard 3.0.48: Directly update and modify the MBR (Master Boot Record) (Windows/Dos Freeware).
  • MBRWork 1.08: A utility to perform some common and uncommon MBR functions (Dos Freeware).
  • Smart Boot Manager 3.7.1: A multi boot manager (Dos Freeware).

MultiMedia Tools

  • MpxPlay 1.56: A small Music Player for dos (Dos Freeware).
  • Picture Viewer 1.94: Picture viewer for dos, supports more then 40 filetypes. (Dos Freeware).
  • QuickView Pro 2.58: Movie viewer for dos, supports many format including divx. (Dos Freeware).

Ms Dos Tools

  • 1394 Firewire Support: 1394 Firewire Drivers for Dos (Dos Freeware).
  • ASUSTeK USB Driver 3: ASUS USB CD-ROM Device Driver Version 1.00 (Dos Freeware).
  • Collection of dos utilities: extract.exe, pkzip.exe, pkunzip.exe, lha.exe, gzip.exe, uharcd.exe, imgExtrc.exe, xcopy.exe, diskcopy.com, mouse.com, undelete.com, edit.com, fdisk.exe, fdisk2.exe, fdisk3.exe, lf.exe, delpart.exe, wipe.com, zap.com, format.com, deltree.exe, more.com, find.exe, hex.exe, debug.exe, split.exe, mem.exe, attrib.com, sys.com, smartdrv.exe, xmsdsk.exe, killer.exe, share.exe, scandisk.exe, scanreg.exe, guest.exe, doskey.exe, duse.exe, move.exe, setver.exe, intersvr.exe, interlnk.exe, loadlin.exe, lfndos.exe, doslfn.com (Dos Commercial).
  • Interlnk support at COM1/LPT1: To access another computer from COM/LPT port (Dos Freeware).
  • SATA Support: SATA Driver (gcdrom.sys) and JMicron JMB361 (xcdrom.sys) for Dos (Dos Freeware).
  • SCSI Support: SCSI Drivers for Dos (Dos Freeware).
  • Universal USB Driver 2: Panasonic v2.20 ASPI Manager for USB mass storage (Dos Freeware).
  • USB CD-Rom Driver 1: Standard usb_cd.sys driver for cd drive (Dos Freeware).

Network Tools

  • Angry IP Scanner 2.21: Scan IP addresses in any range as well as any their ports (Windows Freeware).
  • CurrPorts 1.81: Displays the list of all currently opened TCP and UDP ports on your computer (Windows Freeware).
  • Network Password Recovery 1.24: Recover Windows XP/Vista network passwords (Credentials file) (Windows Freeware).
  • TCPView 2.54: Lists TCP and UDP endpoints, including the Local/Remote addresses of TCP connections (Windows Freeware).
  • Winsock 2 Fix for 9x: To fix corrupted Winsock2 information by poorly written Internet programs (Windows Freeware).
  • XP TCP/IP Repair 1.0: Repair your Windows XP Winsock and TCP/IP registry errors (Windows Freeware).

Optimizers

  • Defraggler 1.20.201: To defrag your entire hard drive or individual files (Windows Freeware).
  • JkDefrag 3.36: Free disk defragment and optimize utility for Windows 2000/2003/XP/Vista/Windows 7 (Windows Freeware).
  • NT Registry Optimizer 1.1j: Registry Optimization for Windows NT/2000/2003/XP/Vista (Windows Freeware).
  • PageDfrg 2.32: System file Defragmenter For NT/2k/XP (Windows Freeware).

Other Tools

  • Bulk Rename Utility 2.7.1.2: Rename multiple files, change timestamps and rename using EXIF data with the click of a button. (Windows Freeware).
  • Fix NTLDR is missing: Fix “NTLDR is missing, Press any key to restart” for Windows Xp (Dos Freeware).
  • Mini Linux: Recovery is Possible Linux (RIPLinux 9.8) contains aria2, cdrtools, curl, ddrescue, dump/restore, emelfm2, epdfview, extundelete, fsarchiver, grub2, hdparm, isomaster, lftp, lynx, lzip, mtpaint, ntfs-3g, openssh, partclone, partimage, pccmoscleaner, pcdiskeraser, pcloginnow, pcregedit, pidgin, qemu, reiserfsck, safecopy, smbclient, xfburn, xterm and more (Linux Freeware).
  • SearchMyFiles 1.47: Alternative to ‘Search For Files And Folders’ module of Windows + Duplicates Search (Windows Freeware).
  • Universal TCP/IP Network 6.5: MSDOS Network Client to connect via TCP/IP to a Microsoft based network. The network can either be a peer-to-peer or a server based network, it contains 98 different network card drivers (Dos Freeware).

Partition Tools

  • Acronis Disk Director 10.0.2160: Popular disk management functions in a single suite (Dos Commercial).
  • eXtended Fdisk 0.9.3: XFDISK allows easy partition creation and edition (Dos Freeware).
  • Fat32 Formatter GUI 1.01: Windows XP cannot format a volume bigger than 32GB with FAT32 (Windows Freeware).
  • GParted Partition Editor 0.6.0b2: To create, copy, paste, delete, hide, resize or move partitions without losing data (Linux Freeware).
  • Paragon Partition Manager 7.0.1274: Universal tool for partitions (Dos Commercial).
  • Partition Table Editor 8.0: Partition Table and Boot Record Editor (Dos Freeware).
  • Partition Wizard Home Edition 5.0: Free Partition Magic Alternative, Partition Resize/Move/Copy/Create/Delete/Format/Convert, Explore, etc. (Windows Freeware).
  • Ranish Partition Manager 2.44: A boot manager and hard disk partitioner. (Dos Freeware).
  • Smart Fdisk 2.05: A simple harddisk partition manager (Dos Freeware).
  • SPecial Fdisk 2000.03v: SPFDISK a partition tool. (Dos Freeware).
  • Super Fdisk 1.0: Create, delete, format partitions drives without destroying data. (Dos Freeware).
  • The Partition Resizer 1.3.4: Move and resize your partitions in one step and more. (Dos Freeware).
  • USB Format Tool: Format/make bootable any USB flash drive to FAT, FAT32, or NTFS partition. (Windows Freeware).

Password Tools

  • Active Password Changer 3.0.420: To Reset User Password on windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista (FAT/NTFS) (Dos Commercial).
  • Asterisk Logger 1.04: Reveal passwords hidden behind asterisk characters. (Windows Freeware).
  • ATAPWD 1.2: Hard Disk Password Utility (Dos Freeware).
  • Content Advisor Password Remover 1.01: It Removes Content Advisor Password from Internet Explorer (Windows Freeware).
  • Kon-Boot 1.1: To bypass Login Password of Windows (32bit, any password) and Linux (kon-usr) (Linux Freeware).
  • LicenseCrawler 0.0.42: Find the license keys and serial numbers of your programs (Windows Freeware).
  • Mail PassView 1.55: Recovers mail passwords of Outlook Express, MS Outlook, IncrediMail, Eudora, etc. (Windows Freeware).
  • MessenPass 1.30: A password recovery tool that reveals the passwords of several instant messangers (Windows Freeware).
  • NTPWD: Utility to reset windows NT/2000/XP administrator/user password. (Dos Freeware).
  • Offline NT Password Changer 2008-08-02: Utility to reset/unlock windows NT/2000/XP/Vista/7 administrator/user password. (Linux Freeware).
  • Password Renew 1.1: Utility to (re)set windows passwords (Windows Freeware).
  • ProduKey 1.41: Recovers lost the product key of your Windows/Office (Windows Freeware).
  • PST (Outlook) Password Recovery 1.12: Small utility that recovers lost password of Outlook .PST (Personal Folders) file (Windows Freeware).
  • WindowsGate 1.1: Enables/Disables Windows logon password validation (Windows Freeware).
  • WinKeyFinder 1.73: Allows you to View and Change Windows XP/2003 Product Keys, backup and restore activation related files, backup Microsoft Office 97, 2000 SP2, XP/2003 keys etc. (Windows Freeware).
  • WirelessKeyView 1.34: Recovers all wireless network keys (WEP/WPA) stored in your computer by WZC (Windows Freeware).
  • XP Key Reader 2.7: Can decode the XP-key on Local or Remote systems (Windows Freeware).

Process Tools

  • Dependency Walker 2.2: Checks for missing/invalid DLL/modules/functions for any exe/dll/ocx/sys. (Windows Freeware).
  • IB Process Manager 1.04: A little process manager for 9x/2k, shows dll info etc. (Windows Freeware).
  • OpenedFilesView 1.46: View opened/locked files in your system, sharing violation issues (Windows Freeware).
  • Pocket KillBox 2.0.0.978: Can be used to get rid of files that stubbornly refuse to allow you to delete them (Windows Freeware).
  • Process Explorer 12.04: Shows you information about which handles and DLLs processes have opened or loaded (Windows Freeware).
  • Process Monitor 2.91: To monitor real-time file system, Registry and process/thread activity, This tool replaces Filemon and Regmon (Windows Freeware).
  • ProcessActivityView 1.11: Detailed process access information read/write/opened files etc (Windows Freeware).
  • Unlocker 1.8.9: This tool can delete file/folder when you get this message: Cannot delete file: Access is denied, The file is in use by another program etc. (Windows Freeware).

RAM (Memory) Testing Tools

  • MemTest 1.0: a Memory Testing Tool (Windows Freeware).
  • Memtest86+ 4.10: PC Memory Test (Linux Freeware).
  • Video Memory Stress Test 1.7.116: A tool to thoroughly test your video RAM for errors and faults (Windows Freeware).
  • Windows Memory Diagnostic: A RAM Test tool (Windows Freeware).

Recovery Tools

  • Active Partition Recovery 3.0: To Recover a Deleted partition. (Dos Commercial).
  • Active Undelete 5.5: A tool to recover deleted files (Windows Commercial).
  • DiyDataRecovery Diskpatch 2.1.100: An excellent data recovery software. (Dos Commercial).
  • GetDataBack for FAT/NTFS 4.0: Data recovery software for FAT/NTFS file systems (Windows Commercial).
  • Partition Find and Mount 2.31: Partition Find and Mount software is designed to find lost or deleted partitions (Windows Freeware).
  • PartitionRecovery 1.0: A freeware tool to recover accidentally deleted partitions (Windows Freeware).
  • PhotoRec 6.12b: Tool to Recover File and pictures from Dos/Windows/Linux (Windows/Dos Freeware).
  • Prosoft Media Tools 5.0 v1.1.2.64: Another excellent data recovery software with many other options. (Dos Commercial).
  • Recuva 1.37.488: Restore deleted files from Hard Drive, Digital Camera Memory Card, usb mp3 player… (Windows Freeware).
  • Restoration 3.2.13: A tool to recover deleted files (Windows Freeware).
  • Smart Partition Recovery 3.3: Find Lost NTFS partitions and restore them back. (Windows Freeware).
  • SoftPerfect File Recovery 1.2: To restore accidentally deleted files from hard drive, USB flash drives, CF and SD memory cards (Windows Freeware).
  • TestDisk 6.12b: Tool to check and undelete partition from Dos/Windows/Linux (Windows/Dos Freeware).
  • Unstoppable Copier 4.4: Allows you to copy files from disks with problems such as bad sectors, scratches or that just give errors when reading data. (Windows Freeware).

Registry Tools

  • ERUNT 1.1j: The Emergency Recovery Utility NT Registry Backup and Restore for Windows NT/2000/2003/XP (Windows Freeware).
  • Fix HDC: Fix the Hard Drive Controller when replacing your motherboard on an XP system (Windows Freeware).
  • Glary Registry Repair 3.3.0.852: An advanced registry cleaner that allows you to safely scan, clean, and repair registry problems (Windows Freeware).
  • RegFromApp 1.21: Monitors/exports the Registry changes made by the selected application. (Windows Freeware).
  • Registry Editor PE 0.9c: Easy editing of remote registry hives and user profiles (Windows Freeware).
  • Registry Restore Wizard 1.0.4: Restores a corrupted system registry from Xp System Restore (Windows Freeware).
  • Registry Viewer 4.2: Registry Viewer/Editor for Win9x/Me/NT/2K/XP (Dos Freeware).
  • RegScanner 1.82: Tool to find/search in the Registry of Windows (Windows Freeware).
  • RegShot 1.8.2: A registry compare utility that allows you to quickly take a snapshot of your registry and then compare it with a second one: done after doing system changes or installing a new software product (Windows Freeware).

Remote Control Tools

  • TeamViewer 1.85: Access any remote computer via Internet just like sitting in front of it, even through firewalls. (Windows Freeware).
  • TightVNC 1.3.10: Cross-platform Remote Desktop Software to view/control remote pc with mouse and keyboard (Windows Freeware).

Security Tools

  • DiskCryptor 0.9: High speed disk encryption tool to encrypt all disk/partitions, including the system partition encryption support (Windows Freeware).
  • TrueCrypt 6.3a: On-the-fly Linux/Windows disk encryption tool, can create a virtual encrypted disk within a file and mount it as a real disk, can also encrypt an entire HDD/Partition/USB Drive (Windows Freeware).

Startup Tools

  • Autoruns 10.01: Displays All the entries from startup folder, Run, RunOnce, and other Registry keys, Explorer shell extensions,toolbars, browser helper objects, Winlogon notifications, auto-start services, Scheduled Tasks, Winsock, LSA Providers, Remove Drivers and much more which helps to remove nasty spyware/adware and viruses. (Windows Freeware).
  • HijackThis 2.0.4: A general homepage hijackers detector and remover and more (Windows Freeware).
  • Silent Runners Revision 61: A free script that helps detect spyware, malware and adware in the startup process (Windows Freeware).
  • Startup Control Panel 2.8: A tool to edit startup programs (Windows Freeware).
  • Startup Monitor 1.02: It notifies you when any program registers itself to run at system startup (Windows Freeware).

System Information Tools

  • Astra 5.46: Advanced System info Tool and Reporting Assistant (Dos Freeware).
  • BlueScreenView 1.26: Scans minidump files for BSOD (blue screen of death) crash information (Windows Freeware).
  • CPU Identification utility 1.18: Detailed information on CPU (CHKCPU.EXE) (Dos Freeware).
  • CPU-Z 1.54: It gathers information on some of the main devices of your system (Windows Freeware).
  • CTIA CPU Information 2.7: Another CPU information tool (Dos Freeware).
  • Drive Temperature 1.0: Hard Disk Drive temperature meter (Windows Freeware).
  • GPU-Z 0.4.3: A lightweight utility designed to give you all information about your video card and GPU (Windows Freeware).
  • HDTune 2.55: Hard disk benchmarking and information tool. (Windows Freeware).
  • HWiNFO 5.5.0: S powerful system information utility (Dos Freeware).
  • Navratil Software System Information 0.60.38: High-end professional system information tool (Dos Freeware).
  • PC Wizard 2010.1.94: Powerful system information/benchmark utility designed especially for detection of hardware. (Windows Freeware).
  • PCI 32 Sniffer 1.4 (2606): Device information tool (similar to unknown devices) (Windows Freeware).
  • PCI and AGP info Tool (2606): The PCI System information & Exploration tool. (Dos Freeware).
  • SIW 2010.0428: Gathers detailed information about your system properties and settings. (Windows Freeware).
  • Speccy 1.02.156: An advanced System Information tool for your PC (Windows Freeware).
  • SysChk 2.46: Find out exactly what is under the hood of your PC (Dos Freeware).
  • System Analyser 5.3w: View extensive information about your hardware (Dos Freeware).
  • UnknownDevices 1.4.20 (2606): Helps you find what those unknown devices in Device Manager really are (Windows Freeware).
  • Update Checker 1.037: Scans your computer for installed software and checks for newer releases on FileHippo (Windows Freeware).
  • USBDeview 1.70: View/Uninstall all installed/connected USB devices on your system (Windows Freeware).

Testing Tools

  • Bart’s Stuff Test 5.1.4: Long term heavy stress testing storage devices (Windows Freeware).
  • CPU/Video/Disk Performance Test 5.7: a tool to test cpu, video, and disk (Dos Freeware).
  • Disk Speed 1.0: Hard Disk Drive Speed Testing Tool (Windows Freeware).
  • H2testw 1.4: Check your USB Flash memory cards, internal/external hard drives and network drives for errors with this tool (Windows Freeware).
  • HDD Scan 3.2: HDDScan is a Low-level HDD diagnostic tool, it scans surface find bad sectors etc. (Windows Freeware).
  • IsMyLcdOK (Monitor Test) 1.02: Allows you to test CRT/LCD/TFT screens for dead pixels and diffective screens (Windows Freeware).
  • PC-Check 6.21: Easy to use hardware tests (Dos Commercial).
  • S&M Stress Test 1.9.1: CPU/HDD/Memory benchmarking and information tool, including temperatures/fan speeds/voltages (Windows Freeware).
  • System Speed Test 4.78: It tests CPU, harddrive, ect. (Dos Freeware).
  • Test Hard Disk Drive 1.0: A tool to test Hard Disk Drive (Dos Freeware).

Tweakers

  • Dial a Fix 0.60.0.24: Fix errors and problems with COM/ActiveX object errors and missing registry entries, Automatic Updates, SSL, HTTPS, and Cryptography service (signing/verification) issues, Reinstall internet explorer etc. comes with the policy scanner (Windows Freeware).
  • Disable Autorun: A small tweak which disables processing of autorun.inf to protect your PC from usb autorun viruses (Windows Freeware).
  • Disable Compress Old Files: This registry tweak is useful when Disk Cleanup Tool Stops Responding While Compressing Old Files (Windows Freeware).
  • EzPcFix 1.0.0.16: Helpful tool when trying to remove viruses, spyware, and malware (Windows Freeware).
  • InstalledCodec 1.15: Disable/Enable Installed Codec drivers and DirectShow filters (Windows Freeware).
  • KeyTweak 2.3.0: A program to Remap Keyboard Layout, you can even customize a broken key to an unused key (Windows Freeware).
  • Protect a Drive from Autorun Virus: Protect your pen drive from being infected when you plug it in an infected PC. (Windows Freeware).
  • RemoveWGA 1.2: Windows Genuine Advantage Notifications Removal tool (Windows Freeware).
  • RRT: Remove Restrictions Tool 3.0: To Re-enable Ctrl+Alt+Del, Folder Options and Registry tools etc. (Windows Freeware).
  • Shell Extensions Manager (ShellExView) 1.47: An excellent tool to View and Manage all installed Context-menu/Shell extensions (Windows Freeware).
  • ShellMenuNew 1.01: View/Change the list of all menu items in the ‘New’ submenu of Windows Explorer (Windows Freeware).
  • Show Hidden Devices: Device Manager hides nonpresent devices that are not physically present in the system, but still have configuration information in the Registry. (Windows Freeware).
  • TweakUI 2.10: This PowerToy gives you access to system settings that are not exposed in Windows Xp (Windows Freeware).
  • Ultimate Windows Tweaker 2.1: A TweakUI Utility for tweaking and optimizing Windows Vista (Windows Freeware).
  • Write Protect USB Devices: Tweak your PC to make USB Pen Drive, Memory Card or Thumb Drive as Read Only (Windows Freeware).
  • Xp-AntiSpy 3.97.9: it tweaks some Windows XP functions, and disables some unneeded Windows services quickly (Windows Freeware).
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
Paragon partition manager server 11 (2011) serial key or number

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Get the original! Paragon Software's advanced partitioning tools help you completely control and manage your hard disks!

With growing hard drive capacity, the need to reasonably split up the space is more important than ever. This easy-to-use partitioning tool is ideal for re-structuring your hard disk for optimal and effective data storage.

New Features:

  • Automatic partition alignment during partitioning/copy operations to optimize performance of the hard disk;
  • Recovery Media Builder;
  • Support of AFD (Advanced Format Drive);
  • Support of 2TB+ and non-512B sector size drives;
  • USB 3.0 ready.

Key benefits:

  • Basic and Advanced Partitioning Features. Create, format, delete, undelete, resize or merge partitions without data loss; redistribute free space.
  • Copy Features. Copy a full hard disk or a separate partition. You can even resize a partition while copying it.
  • Boot Management Features. Easily activate/deactivate the boot manager and setup a multi-boot environment.
  • Optimization Features. Automatic partition alignment during partitioning/copy operations for the hard disk performance optimization. Different strategies of file system defragmentation according to one of the three parameters (file date, file size, directory order).
  • Basic Backup and Restore Features. Create backup images without leaving Windows with Paragon Hot Backup technology. Restore system and data even from bare-metal state.

Please see more features, usage scenarios and detailed product information at Partition Manager 11 Personal website.

Technical Support: During the Giveaway period Paragon Software provides technical support at www.giveawayoftheday.com. Please, post your questions if you have any troubles while downloading, registering and using the software. Paragon Software’s support team will reply you as soon as possible.

Προτεινόμενοι τίτλοι

Don't wait for a disaster to strike - get an instant data and system recovery kit today to ensure your protection! Rescue Kit professionally fixes boot problems as well as retrieves your data when your system fails to boot. It even rescues deleted partitions. All, you need to do to achieve complete control over any situation is burn the software on your CD/DVD! Download Rescue Kit 11 Free Edition on Facebook>>

Total PC Protection for Serious Users! Take complete control of your PC’s safety. Based on solid commercial backup and recovery software from Paragon, the new Backup & Recovery 2011 (Advanced) Free Edition will give you a rich set of features that you can trust.

All-in-one suite to completely protect, maintain and manage your PC! Hard Disk Manager Suite provides you with all of the tools you need to manage today’s hard drives, including partitioning, backup & restore, migration, optimization & defragmentation, hard drive disposal, boot management and system recovery.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
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